OU Degree 3rd Sem English Unit 3 Vocabulary, Grammar

OU Degree 3rd Sem English Unit 3 Vocabulary, Grammar

Essay Writing


  • An essay is perhaps the most common form of writing. It is important in academic life and later in the process of securing an employment.
  • The students must know how to write an essay (well-balanced).
  • The word ‘essay’ comes into English language from Latin and French languages. It means to examine, try test or weigh.

Quality of an Essay

1. An essay is an attempt to last or examine one’s ideas about a particular subject.
2. Essay writing involves number of skills : close reading, analysis, comparison and contrast, pervasions and exposition.
3. Essay should be concise and should have clarity in purpose and direction.

Types of Essays
1. Narrative : These essays tell us some events that happened.
Example: Cricket match; College day celebration.

2. Descriptive : These essays describe persons, places, things etc. A painter uses his colours to recreate a scene whereas a writer can use his rich vocabulary to describe a person, place or thing.
Example: A begger; An accident; My village.

3. Argumentative (Persuasive) : These essays deal with topics that are controversial issues.
Example : Democracy vs Dictatorship, Science – a necessary evil.
The most common essay geneses are the discursive and argumentative essays.

The Writing Process

Any piece of writing involves three stages
i. Pre – Writing
ii. The Writing
iii. Post writing

i. Pre – Writing
Step 1: Think and Grainstom, on the giverilSeleded topic
Step 2 : Job down the ideas that emerge from the thinking/brain-storming
Step 3 : Make an outline of the structure and select the ideas:
a. Introduction
b. Body
c. Conclusion.

The ideas may be jatted down as Table of Contents
a. Introduction: Clearly state the topic to be discussed often with a topic sentence (one paragraph).
b. Body: Clearly state points and exemplify/justify them In (one or three) separate paragraphs.
c. Conclusion: Summarise or conclude by restating your ideas (one paragraph)
Check the following points:

  • All the points have to be included
  • There no point that not necessarily I irrelevant.
  • There are no repetitive ideas
  • Think again cross check add I delete if necessary

ii. The writing stage
Tips for wilting effective essays:

  • Use a style/tone appropriate to the kind of essay being written (A discursive essay is a presentation of ideas, facts in logical, neutral and balanced form.
  • Use an impersonal and format style.
  • Avoid contractions (eg: ‘aren’t, ‘he’s etc.,) short forms, idioms, colloquial expression and so on.
  • Avoid strong, emotional language (eg: I love English, “I hate exams” etc.,)
  • Avoid over-generalization (eg: Slow and steady wins the race”)
  • Use reliable sources of information for reference.
  • Be neutral and make general statements even if one differs in opinion.
  • Use linerslconnectiveWdiscourse makers.to bring out the logic, connect the sentences and paragraphs:
  • Use if appropriate, a direct or thought-provoking question, a quotation or striking the statement o begain the essay.

iii. Post – Writing Stage

  • After the first draft, do some basic editing.
  • Check for topic sentence.
  • Check for cohesion and effectiveness through the use of connections.
  • Check against the outline prepared in stage I and the draft of stage lito check whether all the points are covered.
  • Check the length, style, points covered and add or delete to make it effective.
  • Write the final draft.

Points to Remember for Writing an Essay

  • Choose an apt title for the essay. The little is important to convey the main idea of the essay.
  • Brainstorm, prepare an outline and develop the these is statement. These are important and preliminary steps.
  • Use liners to connect ideas within the essay.
  • Start and end, if you wish, with a quotation, statement or rhetorical question to make essay impressive.
  • Remember the three stages of writing: Pre-writing, writing, post – writing.
  • Get your facts right.
  • Be balanced/unemotional/impersonal in tone.
  • Use &mple language and appriate vocabulary and eliminate grammatical errors.
  • Use separate paragraphs (generally, one paragraph for one idea) for different ideas and links them.
  • Pay attention to editing in the post writing stage.

Discursive Essay :

Exercise 1.

Question 1.
Define the term ‘essay’. List the types of essays and explain the features of a discursive essay.
The term ‘essay is derived from Latin through french it means ‘to test and to
examine’. The main quality of an essay is to examine the ideas on a particular subject. There are four types of essays in general. They are:

  • Narrative
  • Descriptive
  • Discursive (or) expository
  • Argumentative (or) Ersuasive

Discursive Essay
A discursive essay will normally contain an introduction followed by a series of paragraphs which gradually, through the main body of the essay, build a cohesive argument leading to a concluding statement of the writer’s own position on the topic under discussion.This conclusion should be natural, convincing and, at best, inescapable.


  • Explores an issue or an idea and may suggest a position or point of view
  • Approaches a topic from different angles and explores themes and issues in a style that balances personal observations with different perspectives
  • Uses personal anecdotes and may have a conversational tone
  • Primarily uses first person although third person can also be used.
  • Uses figurative language or may be more factual.
  • Draws upon real life experiences and/or draws from wide reading.
  • Uses engaging imagery and language features.
  • Begins with an event, an anecdote or relevant quote that is then used to explore an idea.
  • Resolution may be reflective or open-ended.

Question 2.
Explain the pre-writing, writing and post writing stages of a discursive essay.
i. Prewriting : The pre-writing stage of a discursive essay can be. split into three steps. The first
step is to think and brainstorm on the given topic. The second stage is jotting down the ideas derived from thinking. The third stage is making outline of the structure of the essay.

Generally, the essay has three main paragraphs i.e., introduction, body of the essay and the conclusion of the essay. The last stage in the pre-writing level is checking. One must check if all the relevant points are included. Delete the irrelevant points and repeated points, if any.

ii. Writing : The writing stage begins with the first draft. The ideas must be written in a logical manner. The tone should be neutral and balanced. It should be written in an impersonal style. Avoid colloquial language. Avoid emotional language. Use reliable sources of information.

iii. Post Writing : Post-writing stage begins by editing the draft especially focusing on spelling mistakes, mistakes in grammar etc. Check for the topic sentence, cohesiveness and also check whether all the points are covered or not. Check also the length, the style of writing etc. Write the final draft.

Question 3.
Describe the structure of a five-paragraph discursive essay.
The First Paragraph: The Introduction
The first paragraph will introduce your topic. The introduction is the most important paragraph because it provides direction for the entire essay. It also sets the tone, and you want to grab the reader’s attention with interest and clarity. The best way to tackle the introduction is to:

  • Describe your main idea, or what the essay is about, in one sentence. You can usually use the essay writing prompt or question to form this sentence.
  • Develop a thesis statement, or what you want to say about the main idea. When the writing prompt is a question, your thesis is typically the answer to the question.
  • List three points or arguments that support your thesis in order of importance ; (one sentence for each).
  • Voila! You’ve just written your introductory paragraph.

The Second, Third and Fourth Paragraphs: Supporting Details
These three paragraphs form the body of the essay. They provide details, such as facts, quotes, examples and concrete statistics, for the three points in your introductory paragraph that support your thesis. Take the points you listed in your introduction and discuss each in one body paragraph. Here’s how:

  • First, write a topic sentence that summarizes your point. This is the first sentence of your paragraph.
  • Next, write your argument, or why you feel the topic sentence is true.
  • Finally, present your evidence (facts, quotes, examples, and statistics) to support your argument.

Now you have a body paragraph. Repeat for points two and three. The best part about introducing your main points in the first paragraph is that it provides an outline for your body paragraphs and eliminates the need to write in transitions between paragraphs.

The Fifth Paragraph: The Conclusion
The concluding paragraph must summarize the essay. This is often the most difficult paragraph to write. In your conclusion, you should restate the thesis and connect it with the body of the essay in a sentence that explains how each point supports the thesis. Your final sentence should uphold your main idea in a clear and compelling manner. Be sure you do not present any new information in the conclusion.

Exercise II.

Write Discussive essay on the following topics

1. Duties of a good citizen

India is a great country. The citizens of India are blessed with many rights and also responsibilities. A good citizen is one who is aware of both duties and responsibilities. He or she should perform for the sake of the society and also for the nation. Morality and statesmanship is necessary.

  • He or she should serve the society. Community services, programmes must be organised and he should participate volunteerly to serve others.
  • Honesty and sincerity is necessary.
  • Obey the law, norms and rules.
  • He or she should enhance the right of other’s by his behaviour.
  • a. Respecting others
    b. Protecting the property of others
  • Adoptability, flexibility and responsibility of his actions
  • Observation of the environment.

2. Education as Empowerment:

Education may be defined as the process of facilitating learning or acquiring knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Education as human endeavour is said to be an empowering agency. It helps human beings build a better world with their knowledge, skills and values.

It is widely accepted that true education has the power to help us reduce poverty and inequality that exist in our society. Education enables the marginalized people to claim their status as full participating members of a community in the economic, social, political and cultural spheres. Hence education can be equated with empowerment.

Firstly, education is useful in enhancing one’s social status. Human history is replete with so many instances where an educated person always enjoyed high social regard. For example, people like, Kalidas, Aryabatta, Charaka, Annamayya, etc., were respected in their contemporary society.

Secondly, education empowers its possessor with financial growth. Educated people are sought after by the prospective employers, since the knowledge and skills associated with education play a crucial role in setting up a human organisation and its smooth administration. It is quite natural that the more the educated, the more the chances of getting employed and getting more associated salary and emoluments.

Thirdly, education also empowers people politically. Education provides the required awareness about the nature of governance, constitutional provisions, parliamentary procedures, peoples’ aspirations, rights and duties of citizenry. The trained and aware citizenry is the hallmark of any democratic dispensation.

Hence education empowers people with social status, wealth and economic stability, and also provides with political empowerment. It helps us in preserving our culture and tradition. There is a high difference between the educated and the uneducated in many ways. Therefore education plays an empowerment role, and helps us realize a variety of human capabilities and make the world better to live in.

3. Privatisation of Education:

With the advent of New Economic AIicy 1991, the many sectors of the Indian economy have been liberalised, privatised and globalised. Education Is one of such sectors opened up for the private players. Privatisation of Education refers to private ownership of educational institutions-schools, colleges and universities and keeping them under private management and control. It breaks the state monopoly in education sector.

The effect of privatization of education, like many other sectors, is slowly being felt in India. Since our independence, the responsibility for expansion and development of education has been largely on the governments. With development of the society and an increase in its economic capacity, it becomes obligatory for the state to increase its allocation of resources to the education sector.

Education has recently given the status of fundamental right and now the government is mandated to provide free, and compulsory education to all children under the age of 14; higher education for its citizens so that they can lead quality life; and equal opportunities for education to those who
belong to the weaker sections of the society.

Over the years, education has become one of the fastest growing service sectors in the Indian economy. Our government’s spending on education in India was limited to 3.3% of its GDP in 1999-2000 while the average spending on education by the top

100 countries in the world was 5.24% of their GDP instead of spending more to expand and strengthen the public-funded education institutions, the Indian governments, irrespective of the political affiliations, have started resorting to allow the private players into education sector.

With the changing priorities of the government, public education is slowing losing its strength and giving way to the private sector. The state is no longer coping with the situation where the private players are to take up the responsibility of providing education. Some people are looking towards privatization of education as a panacea. Education is a necessity for human development.

Since the government feels that it is unable to find the funds required for it, and wants to create a competitive environment for public- funded educational institutions, privatization may seem to be the only answer. However, the state should provide safeguards to ensure the educational needs of the weaker sections of the society who have been hitherto deprived of education. And the governments should not forego their responsibility towards them.

4. True Friendship

A friend in need is a friend indeed. A friend is a companion and partner to share happy and sorrowful moments of life. Through freindship one can forget all the pains and gets new energy with lot of enthusiasm. Friendship need trust and understanding. It enhances life and pushes us to new horizon to explore. The needful help and support can be gained by friendship. In scriptures the ideal friendship is between lord Krishna and Kuchela. Nowadays Twitter” is used for passing on and sharing the opinions. Friendship enhances strength, encouragement and motivation.

5. Technology and Human Relationships

The rapid technological advancement has brought about significant changes in human lives, especially in their relationships. The latest technologies such social media and online gaming, have turned this world into a “global village” but the way humans interact with each other, the types of relations and their importance has changed a lot.

There is a perception that human relationships are getting weakened with wide use of technology, especially, widespread use of the social media platforms such as Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter, etc.

Firstly, technology provides an opportunity for virtual reality, i.e., hyperreality. This hyperreality seems to be more real than the reality. Those who are habituated to the use of addictive technology, tend to prefer more the virtual reality and unintentionally lose the value of human touch and human relationships.

Secondly, technology has brought us closer and reduced the physical distance between people. However, in reality, it has taken us away from each other. With addiction to technology, people are moving towards isolated and individualistic life even in the presence of other people. For instance, let us imagine a situation where a family is at the dining table with sumptuous food to eat.

While having their breakfast, the daughter and the son are immersed in their mobile phones, chatting with their friends on WhatsApp. The father has a smart phone in his hands, reading the e-newspaper. The mother is searching for the recipe for preparing a new food item. Here in this context, all the members of the family are physically close and virtually “socializing” but are psychologically emotionally at distant from each other. The situations like this are quite common these days.

Thirdly, the advancement in technology has brought us close. However, it is also taking away us from each other. Until, the later part of the twentieth century, the means of communication were limited such as writing letters or sending telegrams. The number of people one knew of was limited. At that time, one might not know the person living on the other side of globe.

But they talked and interacted with each other and understand each other. Today, one knows the person who lives several thousand miles away through social media but sadly, one does not know his or her next door neighbour. People now seem to be spending more of their time on either on social media or in playing online video games.

Technology is widely accepted as an enabling agent for realisation of human capabilities. However, if not used properly, it can spoil the very human capabilities. Now is time to realise the harmful impact of the negative use of technology on human relationships and train the young mind to use it in a positive manner.

6. Peaceful Coexistence

To be peaceful is a great mental state and adjustment and co-operation is necessary for peaceful co-existence in life. This is possible by understanding and rising to different situations. We should live in the right way and also allow other to live and let live is a meaningful sologan in daily life. Peace prevails only when hearts unite together.

We should try to listen others problems and also we should express our own facts and ideas. An open mind and a loving heart can create cecellency around the atmosphere. Peaceful existence is so desirable for a long and comfortable life.

7. India’s Plural Culture

India has a rich culture of diversity and is known as a ‘land of unity in diversity for its vibrant diverse culture. Historically, India has absorbed and assimllated into its own many religions, cultures and other varied identities. India is blessed with different traditions, and customs. Be in religions, races, Languages, intellectual achievements, performing arts, our country has made us a vivid and colourful; rich and diverse nation.

The pluralistic culture of our country can be explained as follows: Firstly, India is a land of many religions. Major religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhisni were born in this land and spread all over the world. Over 80 percent of the people follow Hinduism; the other faiths are also respected. The Constitution of India proclaims itself as secular and treats all religions equally. The people of different faiths live harmoniously in this country, though there are testing times with religious turbulences.

Secondly, our country is a land of multiple languages. According to an estimate, more than 19,500 mother tongues are spoken in India. However the Indian Constitution has officially recognized 22 Languages. Besides English, Hindi is treated as official language. Barring some anti-Hindi movements in the southern parts of the country, the people of this country with diverse linguistic background co-exist with a sense of brotherhood.

Thirdly, India is a land of many races Indians consist of Aryans, Dravidians, Mongoloid, etc. However people of different races feel oneness in their racial plurality. The plural culture of India can also be witnessed in terms of diverse climatic conditions. food habits, dressing, and celebration of different festivals and even in political view points.

Thus, the unity in diversity is the hail mark of Indias pluralistic culture, People of this country enjoy the comingling and assimilation into Indianness. making this land multicultural nation which can be an example of how ‘plurality lives together in singularity’ in the present strife-torn world.

8. Meaningful Life

The question ‘what makes our life meaningful?’ is difficult to answer. In the pursuit of their life, human beings are always confronted with this question. The meaning of life may vary from person to person and from perception to perception. Some people try to find the meaning of life in wealth: some others try to find it in name and fame;

some more in health; and some others in spirituality. In this essay, an effort is made to look at the meaningful life through two different perceptions: the perception of spirituality and philosophy, and the perception of worldliness (material happiness).

From the perception of life through the Lenses of philosophy and spirituality, the ultimate goal of our existence and the purpose of human race is the development of spiritual and moral character of an individual. In one situation, people can make their life meaningful through their activities. For example, a person can see the meaning of his or her life in pursuit of happiness and well-being; and in other situation, such as hostile environments of existence, life may assume different meaning. In some other situations, life is an eternal struggle to chase our dream. in contrast to tranquillity and harmony.

From the perception of worldliness, the meaning of life assumes an altogether different proposition. For those who are fully involved in world affairs, the life is meaningful when we put our efforts in the pursuit of matenal happiness. This perception of life entirely depends on the notion of non existence of life after death. Those who believe in this perception feel that whatever life offers in this world in tenns of satisfying material needs should be enjoyed without any complaint. For them, fulfilment of material happiness makes life meaningful.

However it is very difficult answer the question of ‘what makes our life meaningful. We may conclude that life is meaningful if we realise our potential and use our energies to make this world better to Live in, giving voice to the voiceless; and power to the powerless. We may make our life meaningful in serving the humanity manavasevemadhawaseva.

9. India since Independence

Since independence, India has achieved a lot of success In many areas, however with some exceptions Ever since India attained independence from the British in 1947, there were misconceptions about the ability of the Indians to run their own country after freedom. However, the Indians have not only dispensed with the misconceptions but have also attained excellence in the field of agriculture, education, health, space and nuclear technology. and information and communication technology (IT).

However, there are certain areas we are still lagging behind the world. First and foremost thing that India has achieved after independence is the upholding of democratic traditions. Presently, India is the world’s largest democracy. Since independence, india is the only country in the entire Asia that has remained democratic; the only exception to this is the brief period of the Emergency in 1975-76.

Many in the world were doubtful about the viability of democracy in india. Their belief was further strengthened when several countries in the region, including Pakistan, failed as democracies and chose authoritarian and militarist regimes. However, India has crossed almost seventy year as a democracy. In India, it is the ballot, and not the bullet, that reigns supreme.

The second thing that India can be proud of is its self-sufficiency in food production. Immediately after independence, India was not in apposition to feed its own people and in dire need of food imports. The Green Revolution of 1960’s has brought technology into the Indian agricultural sector. This has resulted in massive scaling up of food produce, leading to stocks to fend off any untoward situation. Now our country is in a position to export food to other needy countries.

India’s contribution to the UN Food Programme to support the poor countries is well-appreciated. The third thing that India has achieved after its independence is its advancement in the field of science and technology, especially in the area of information and communication technology. We are the leading nation in proving the IT and ITES to the world. Our self-sufficiency in the nuclear and space technology is known to the entire world.

However, India is still struggling with its own inhibitions such as caste and religious strife. Some deficiencies in our democracy, illiteracy, poverty and inequalities in the society are some of the failures of India even after its independence. Still we are a nation in the making and have miles to go before we take rest.

10. Globalisation and its Impact

Ever since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990’s, the world has moved towards more liberal and private view of economies. It was in that context, the advent of ‘globalization’ as a concept and practice has assumed importance. The term ‘globalisation’ is used to describe the growing interdependence of the world’s economies, cultures, and populations.

Globalisation has brought about by the seamless cross-border trade in goods and services, technology, and flows of investment, people, and information. It has transformed the entire world as ‘global village’. The amalgamation of varied activities associated with ‘globalisation’ has influenced the entire human race in one way or the other. The impact of globalisation may be explained in the following:

Globalisation has offered an opportunity to move goods, services, investment and people from country to another without any restrictions. It created the world as one market for all. Some goods, which were hitherto not available to some countries, started reaching to the needy throughout the world. Investment has become cheaper for the developing countries, like India and contributed in their development.

Globalisation has also provided safeguards for the poor and least developed countries in terms of preferential tariffs. With the seamless movement of people from part of the globe to another, cultures and traditions have got into constant contact. Influencing and getting influenced has happened, leading to formation of multi-cultural and cosmopolitan cultures. Food habits, dressing, popular cultures such as movie, entertainment, etc., have been in constant change which makes it easier to understand each other.

On the negative side of it, globalisation has its own limitations. All is not well with it. Especially, globalization does not hold the same benefits for all members of the global community. Too much interdependence of economies has made some countries at disadvantage. It holds more benefit for members of developed nations such as the USA, the U.K. etc., while many developing nations are deprived of their rightful place in trade and business.

Influx of goods and services into the developing countries has not only eroded economic independence of these countries but also affected their political independence. Due to the disorder created by globalisation, the poor are getting poorer; the rich getting richer- poverty increased, inequality increased, and world peace disturbed.

Every coin has two sides and similar is the case with globalisation. Globalisation has offered plenty of opportunities for many disadvantaged countries. It also provides a level playing field for individuals who can now venture into the world markets to explore their possibilities. Still globalisation has its own limitations.

11. Protection of Bio-diversity

Biodiversity refers to the variety and variability of both terrestrial and aquatic life on Earth. It is typically a measure of variation at three levels-genetic, species, and ecosystem. It is because of human intervention in the form of industrialisation, urbanisation, and human induced climate change and global warming that the biological diversity is getting disturbed.

As the result, some of the species which once existed on the earth have now become extinct; some are endangered; and some others are on the brink of extinction. It is in this context, protection and conservation of biodiversity is the vital measure for the survival of various species, including the human being, on the planet Earth.

Conservation of biodiversity is possible when we take measures for protection and preservation of the flora and fauna on the Earth. Through a variety of protective measures, the richness of ecosystem can be conserved and quality of human life, including life of the other species improved. We the human beings should ensure equilibrium in the well-established food chains in different ecological habitats.

Protection of biodiversity is possible if we adopt more sustainable development models that minimize our intervention in the natural ecosystem. It is now a well-established fact that human activities in the form of the industrial revolution, ever-expanding improper urbanisation, pressure on natural resources, have severely affected the conservation of biodiversity.

As the result, deforestation; high level of air, water, sound, and soil pollution; global warming, extreme weather conditions such as frequent floods, famines, threat of locust, rise of sea and ocean levels, etc., are disturbing the whole ecological balance. Sustainability is the only panacea for the impending disaster for biodiversity.

Serious steps need to be taken in order to protect and conserve biodiversity. Especially, human beings should realise that every single class of flora and fauna possesses its unique place in the environmental and ecological structure and helps others survive. It is a win-win situation for everyone and it should not be one’s survival as others’ extinction, but the extinction of all.

For example, if a single species gets extinct from the food chain, it will affect the other species that survive on the former and eventually gets on the queue of destruction. The richer the biodiversity in an ecosystem, the healthier will be the species living in them. Hence, sustainable development is the only measure to protect the endangered biodiversity. Live, let others and posterity to live.

12. Nature and its important

A life intune with nature is serene peaceful and balanced. In oldens days people used to live according to natural laws. Nature takes care of eco-system in a creative way

  • The learning method takes place naturally
  • Health” aspect improves fastly quick recovery for patients
  • The aspects of food, hygene and thinking power, inner peace all depend on natural life.

Natural Sources
Oceans, rivers, mountains, seas all take park in maintaining natural eco-balance and life sustainity. Forest conservation, greenary maintenance is important. In ozone protection, river purification and strategies to protect environment are necessary.

Argumentative Essay

Exercise 1.

Question 1.
Explain the features of an Argumentative Essay.
Features of argumentative essay:

  • The purpose of argument in writing is to convince or move readers toward a certain point of view, or opinion.
  • An argument is a reasoned opinion supported and explained by evidence. To argue, in writing, is to advance knowledge and ideas in a positive way.
  • A thesis that expresses the opinion of the writer in more specific terms is better than one that is vague.
  • It is essential that you not only address counterarguments but also do so respectfully.
  • It is also helpful to establish the limits of your argument and what you are trying to accomplish through a concession statement.
  • To persuade a skeptical audience, you will need to use a wide range of evidence. Scientific studies, opinions from experts, historical precedent, statistics, personal anecdotes, and current events are all types of evidence that you might use in explaining your point.
  • Make sure that your word choice and writing style is appropriate for both your subject and your audience.
  • You should let your reader know your bias, but do not let that bias blind you to the primary components of good argumentation: sound, thoughtful evidence and respectfully and reasonably addressing opposing ideas.

Question 2.
Compare and contrast Discursive and Argumentative essays.

Discursive Essay Argumentative Essay
1. The questions end with “Discuss”. Questions end with “Do you agree?”

Alternative, they might compel writers to make a stand throught he use of absolute terms such as “alway”, “definitely” etc.

2. Focus is on explaining one’s perspectives and thoughts. Focus is on making a stand on an  argument and providing elaboration and examples to reinforce this stand.
3. Writing is often balanced, with arguments on both sides of the issue. Writing is often inclined towards the
writer’s stand and often offers a counter argument, of which it is often rebutted.
4. Focus is more on the expression and clarity of the writer’s thoughts and perspectives. Focus is more on being persuasive, convincing the readers to the writers’ point of view.

Question 3.
Describe the structure of three – paragraph argumentative essay.
The Structure of an Argumentative Essay

  • The introductory part may begin with a general statement on the given topic but by the end of the topic should be in line with the writers position.
  • The body should contain all the cons of the topic is one paragraph and proving the falsity with the pros in the next paragraph.
  • The role of linkers and cohesive markers is important in effecting a smooth transition of ideas within the paragraph and among the paragraphs.
  • Conclusion should be logical and effective and should arise out to he arguments provided in the preceding paragraphs.
  • The writers tone should remain logical arid balanced. He or she should use an ’emotional personal tone except for espressing individual opinion or clarifying the stand taken.

There are three possible structures of an argumentative essay.
Structure 1
Para 1 : Introduction
Para 2 : Supporting argument 1
Para 3 : Supporting argument 2
Para 4 : Opposing argument or argument with refutations
Para 5 : Conclusion

Structure II
Para 1 : Introduction
Para 2 : Opposing argument or arguments with refutations.
Para 3 : Supporting argument 1 Para 4 : Supporting argument 2
Para 5 : Conclusion

Structure III
Para 1 : Introduction
Para 2 : Opposing argument 1 and refutation
Para 3 : Opposing argument 2 and refutation
Para 4 : Opposing argument 3 and refutation
Para 5 : Conclusion

Exercise – II.

Using either the three-paragraph or the five-paragraph method, develop the following hints into argumentative essays and give suitable titles.

Question 1.
Treating women as objects Patriarchy: women as property Popular culture: portrayal of women in popular cinema, media and advertisements Religion: women as impure and inferior Violence in society and violence against women Need for gender sensitization Teaching non violent behaviour Changing gender stereotypes Awareness through education.
Since time immemorial women is treated as an object. She is an in many forms like house wife, mother, servant, sex object and so on. She is. used as stage properly in popular culture. The portray of women in cinemas, media and advertisements reflects various stages of victimisation and exploitation. Father and husband take decisions at institutional level and they execute the things without the consent of women.

Even in religious level women is portrayed in victimised status. It is understood that violence in society is violence against women. They are impure in all aspects and inferior to men. It is high time to recognise the need of women empowerment. This can be possible through the promotion of creating awareness among the women the need of education. Mere stereotype characters will not help you in any way. Men have to develop the sensitive attitude of non-violent behaviour.

Question 2.
Lack of family time Distractions – Modem age communication technologies and devices Internet, smart phones and selfie mania Sleep disorders Accidents Behavioural changes Radiation risks Unrealistic aspirations increasing crime – Social cost of economic and technological progress.
We are living in jet-speed life. Man is full of worries, anxieties. He has no time to establish good relation with others. He uses all the time a mono syllabic words. His communicative abilities are distracted by several drawbacks like using cell phone, using internet and other communication technologies.

As a result he kills his imaginative and creative power. He at great risk. His behavioural pattern changes cynically. He is man without voice. He imitates crime and allows himself to grow unrealistically. He is standing in the way of National progress and true spirit of technological progress.

Exercise III.

Using either the three-paragraph or the five paragraph method, write argumentative essays on the following topics:

Question 1.
Should Schools do away with Homework ?
Homework is a must for children because it enhances the motor skills learning takes place fastly. It is old practice traditionally followed by ‘Gurukula system’.

The Role of the School
If teaching is qualitative and methodical the child need not have homework from the school curriculum. He should not be burdened by it but it should enhance his learning process.

Home Work in holidays
In traditional way of learning abundant quantitative level of homework is entrusted to children. It is done mostly by other members in the family hence the child can not be benefited.

Sincerity and Honesty
Children should be taught values while using cell phones and other technological devices for the homework.

Question 2.
Do ends always justify means ?
It depends on the goals, what means one is suppose to select. The goal has to be noble and ideal. One can be highly benefitted by means also. The means is to be an open channel and it should purify and mend the individual.The approach is also important it depends upon the attitude. In ethics the right
means lead to right goal.

Moralitical foundation is most important in imparting education. A society with corrupted minds and criminals cannot sustain by itself. Our heritage and culture and upanishads teaches us to stand by truth and non-violence.

Question 3.
Can one use western gadgets but remain unaffected by of western culture ?
Indian Culture, which is one of the oldest and richest cultures in the world with varied languages, customs, beliefs, ideas, taboos, codes, instructions, works of art, architecture, rituals, ceremonies etc. India’s cultural history of several thousands years old and it shows a continuity and subtle change with strong thread of continuity, epitomised in the assimilative power of culture and unique display of unity in diversity’.

With the conquest of European powers and subsequent British rule in India has had a profound effect of eastern culture on Indian society. Western culture has made its presence in various forms. Westernization is defined as incorporation of the norms, values and culture of the west into our culture. It as greatly affected our traditions, customs, our family and our respect and love for others.

The concept: joint families is fastly decreasing everyone wants to remain aloof from others and has given rise to ngle families. Marriages are fast breaking down & our tolerance and patience has given the answer.

Question 4.
Is science always right ?
Science itself is beneficial but it. depends on the persons who are handling it and on their altitude. The benefits of science are multiple. There are many people in the society blindly following science by experiments and proofs.

They are intellecually stagnated. The society economically and socially. Promoting education and skills is an important aspect to lift them to heights. Parents while bringing up children can inculcate sensitivity and respect towards them. The attitude towards women can be changed rapidly by sing media. The non-cooperative rigid views is to be transformed into co-operative and non-violent and tenderness.

Question 5.
Should government schools and hospitals be made mandatory for I government officials and politicians
This policy should not be one at mandatory for any government employees. There are many facts which we have to think over. The first one is that all government employees cannot send their children to government schools whose standard is at low level.

The government employees must have good and well equipped hospitals for their I hygene and secured life. For residential purpose government employees cannot be isolated from other society and live in separate colonies. The freedom to get qualitative education freed to select the means and ways is for all. India is a diversified country but its constitution is strong and well framed.

Question 6.
Is the right to privacy sacrosanct ?
Our is a democractic country. The law and order is highly appreciated. The citizens of India are more powerful to vote and select a government. Privacy of the people should be limited in life. The law is above to it. the law ban implemented at any moment to contrail the access of the people for the sake of welfare of the society. Ex : The Central Beaura of investigation and other departments of law is always vigilant on the section of the people crossing the lines.

Question 7.
Should private coaching institutions be banned ?
Private coaching institutions are, necessary as educational scenario is changing drastically the traditional way of teaching changed. Students face lot Of competition for competitive exams. Coaching centres help students to achieve their goals in specified time. Before scantioning recognition or affiliation government should make policy about infrastructure and quality.

Private institutions should not be banned but there should be certain regulation on its management. The financial status of the students varies so graduation or the students with good ranks can be given preference. The fees and the working hours are to be observed.

The commercial purpose need not be encouraged. The burden the stress and strain students in the name of competition is not a healthy sign. Limited and beneficial methodical teaching can support the students to fulfill their aspirations

Question 8.
Is the law always just ?
The law is for the people the down trodden must benefited and encouraged for social upliftment. As India is democratic country law helps us for protecting liberty and fraternity. Sovernity also depends on law. The government should make law helpful to people should realise the value of constitution. The brotherhood of the people india is possible by following the law. The law is for enhancement of a sound life.

Question 9.
Should religion play any role in public life ?
Religion imparts values in human life. It is important and plays a vital role. The foremost point is character building which is imbibed by religious life. The code of conduct, the personality behaviour depends on what we learn form religion. We learn the most important aspect i.e., faith from our scriptures. Religions values changes person and purifies the inner most layers of the soul. It transforms animal to human and then devine. Thus religion plays an important role in our life.

Advertisements benefit the manufactures and not the customer
The manufacturing company should maintain quality of the product. Then the company sales can rise and reputation of the company can be sustainable. Through advertisements, company will be benefited. It helps the advertiser. Without quality advertisements cannot support the company’s name and fame.

Without quality products advertisements are just a waste for the manufacturer. Advertisements brings happiness and information to the customer. Customer’s satisfaction depends on the quality and reasonable cost of the product. Advertisements should be attractive and plays a vital role to increase the market sales.

Vocabulary – Idioms

Question 1.
What is an idiom?
An idiom is an expression whose meaning can not be worked out from the words it contains. In an idion the group of words have a fixed order and as a group, they have a meaning of the individual words in the group.

Ex : If somebody is described as a person who has both her feet on the ground, it means she is ‘sensible’ ‘realistic’ and practical person. An idiom is more like a saying or an expression (or proverb. that is specific to a culture!

Use : Idioms are used in informal English. It is advisable to avoid idioms in formal contexts such as academic, scientific and technical writing.

Exercise 1.

Choose the Correct Meaning of the Idiom

Question 1.
To pay through the nose
a. Doing something correctly or well.
b. To pay more for something than its actual worth.
c. To show your anger.
d. To spend more time or energy on something than is necessary.
Answers :
b. To pay more for something than its actual worth.

Question 2.
To take something to heart
a. A lot of worry of excitement about a situation that is not important.
b. To not allow criticism to worry or upset you
c. To allow something to affect or upset you deeply.
d. To start behaving in an unacceptable way.
Answers :
a. A lot of worry of excitement about a situation that is not important.

Question 3.
To not have the stomach for something.
a. To be born to rich parents
b. To exist with very little money
c. To not feel interested, strong or brave enough to do something.

Question 4.
On the ricks
a. In trouble
b. Near failure or defeat
c. To do things in the wrong order
d. To settle down or become established
Answers :
a. In trouble

Question 5.
To show someone the rope
a. To annoy someone
b. To impress of influence someone
c. To put pressure on someone
d. To show someone what to do.
Answers :
d. To show someone what to do.

Question 6.
To see red
a. To small, visible part of a large problem.
b. To become angry
c. To be suspicious of what you bear, to not believe everything you bear
d. To turn a small problem into a large one.
Answers :
d. To turn a small problem into a large one.

Question 7.
To hold the fort
a. To accept the good and bad aspects of something
b. To be experienced and good at something
c. To do a job for some one (e.g. while they are away or busy.
d. To make some one or something seem less lood or important
Answers :
c. To do a job for some one (e.g. while they are away or busy.

Question 8.
To lead someone up the garden path .
a. To be funny or isonic
b. To deceive some one (often over a long period of time.
c. To embrass someone
d. To get out of control
Answers :
b. To deceive some one (often over a long period of time.

Question 9.
To get something off your chest
a. To dd something that harts yourself
b. To have many things to do or worry about
c. To relase
d. To talk about something that has been worrying you for a long time
Answers :
c. To relase

Question 10.
To take a leaf out of someone’s book
a. To be involved in something
b. To be sensible and realistic
c. To follow someone’s example
d. To look after someone to take care of them
Answers :
c. To follow someone’s example

Exercise II.

Match idiom in Column I with the meaning in Column II.

Column I Column II
1. If something fits the bill (a) It has difficulties at the start.
2. If you do something at the drop of a hat (b) It is not clear until the last moment who will win.
3. If you don’t bat an eye (c) They are in conflict.
4. It something has testing problems (d) You manage your finances badly
5. If people are at loggerheads (e) It is not what you believe in
6. If something goes against the grain (f) It is difficult.
7. If you’re penny wise, pound foolish. (g) You do it without hesitation.
8. If a race down to the wire (h) It is what is required.
9. It something is like clock work (i) You show no reaction.
10. It something is not bed of roses. (j) It is punctual and regular.

1. (h)
2. (g)
3. (i)
4. (a)
5. (c)
6. (e)
7. (d)
8. (b)
9. (J)
10. (f)

Grammar Connectives

Connectives are variety of words and phrases that can be used to Link sentences and organise text. Connectives help in establishing connections within and between sentences.
Connectives help the reader to move smoothly from one idea to another.
Connectives can be classified into different categories based on the functions they perform.

1. Connectives are used to add further information.
Example: Air conditioners use lot of energy. Additionally they cause pollution.

2. Sequencing connectivies help develop the logical ‘sequence of ideas and show a chronological order.
Example: Initially he injected a small amount later he asked his friends invest.

3. Emphasising connectives help highlight in it certain points.
Example: Work hard especially if you wish to top the class

4. Comparing connectives show the difference between two ideas
Example: I am tall whereas my sister is short.

5. Cause and effect connectives explain why something happens.
Example: The girl missed her bus. Consequently, she was late for her class.

5. Illustrating connectives are used to provide examples.
Example: (She eat a lot of fruits such as apples, bananas, water melons etc.)

Exercise I.

Choose the appropriate connective

1. _______ we started late, we still arrived in time. (AlthougMnspite of)
2. Many people in the office tried to helps. They were friendly (too/as well)
3. I love carom my friends prefer cricket. (further more, whereas)
4. ________ ¡ didn’t know anyone at the party, I left early (As/so)
5. Manu wanted to watch the film, he fell asleep halfway through (but, because)
Answers :
1. Although
2. too
3. whereas
4. As
5. but

Exercise II.

Fill in the gaps with a suitable connective more than one connective may be possible

1. They took a map along …………. they lost their way.
2. She had sprained her ankle that, …………. she managed to participate in the dance competition.
3. My handwriting is terrible ………… my sister’s handwriting is beautiful.
4. She came late to the exam hall …………. she forgot to bring a pen.
5. He is a bad driver …………. he hasn’t had any accidents.
Answers :
1. However
2. Inspite of
3. whereas
4. moreover
5. yet

Exercise III.

Link the sentences in a logical way with an appropriate connective. Do not repeat the connectives.

1. The firm was doing badly. It was closed.
2. It is your money you can do what you like with it.
3. The programme was cancelled. All the tickets had been sold out.
4. It’s very hot. Turn on the air conditioner.
5. I slipped and fell. I fractured my knee-joint.
Answers :
1. The firm was doing badly. I as a result It was closed.
2. It is your money certainly you can do what you like with it.
3. The programme was cancelled even though all the tickets had been sold out.
4. It’s very hot hence/win on the air conditioner.
5. I slipped and fell as a result I fractured my knee-joint.

Exercise IV.

Read the sentence and correct the errors in the use of connectives.

1. I will call you wherever I have the results.
2. You keep my books when you like.
3. My sister went shopping Moreover she didn’t buy anything.
4. My nephew is good at languages. Because my niece is good at maths.
5. It was getting late. Though the guests didn’t leave
Answers :
1. after
2. As long as
3. however
4. whereas
5. But

Exercise V.

Re arrange the jumbled sentences in a proper order using the hints provided by the connectives ( in italics)

Accident on NH 65
1. On Friday night, two buses collided in heavy rain one NH 65.
2. One was a sleeper bus going to Hyderabad.
3. The other one was a Volvo Bus in which a marriage party was travelling from Hyderabad to Pune.
4. Both the vehicles suffered considerable damage, though
5. In spite of this damage, the two vehicles managed to reach the nearby depot.
6. Luckily, there was.no loss of life, but the drivers and five passengers sustained minor injuries.
7. Eye – witnesses said that neither of the vehicles was speeding at the time of the accident.
8. However, because of the heavy rain, the drivers could not see the danger until a few seconds before the collision,
9. Consequently, there was no time for them to avoid the accident.
10. A spokes person for the RTA said a committee of enquiry would be setup to investage the matter and look at the causes.
11. The official added that the Principal Secretary, Ministry of Transport, would be leading the committee.
Answers :
1. Two buses collided on NH 65 in heavy rain on Friday night.
2. One sleeper bus was going to Hyderabad.
3. A Volvo bus in Which a marriage party was travelling from Hyderabad to Pune was the other one.
4. Though both the vehicles suffered considerable damage.
5. The two vehicles managed to reach nearby depot, inspite of this damage.
6. The drivers and five passengers sustained minor injuries but there was no loss of life luckily.
7. Neither of the vehicles was speeding at the time of the accident, said the eye witnesses.
8. The drivers could not see the danger until a few seconds before the collision because of the heavy rain.
9. To avoid the accident consequently there was no time.
10. “A committee of enquiry would be setup to investigate the matter and look into the causes said spokes person for the RTA.
11. The Principal Secretary Ministry of transport would be leading the Committee, the official added.

OU Degree 3rd Sem English Study Material

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