OU Degree 6th Sem English Unit 6 Vocabulary, Grammar

OU Degree 6th Sem English Unit 6 Vocabulary, Grammar

OU Degree 6th Sem English Unit 6 Vocabulary, Grammar

Vocabulary: Appropriacy

Exercise – I

Identify the formal and informal ways of greeting among the following.

1. How are you? ( )
2. Good to see you. ( )
3. How are things? ( )
4. How are you doing? ( )
5. How are you everything? ( )
6. What’s up? ( )
7. How’s it going? ( )
8. How is life? ( )
9. How have you been keeping? ( )
10. I trust that everything is well.
Answers:
1. Formal
2. Informal
3. Informal
4. Formal
5. Formal
6. Informal
7. Informal
8. Informal
9. Formal
10. Formal

Exercise – II

Rewrite the following sentences in formal /Informal English.

1. Hi there
2. Seeyoulater!
3. I would like to apologize for forgetting your birthday.
4. Thanks a lot for the present!
5. How do you do, Mrs Rao?
6. It is a pleasure to meet you.
Answer:

1. Hi there 1. Hello ! / Hello, May I know who is speaking.
2. See you later! 2. I will meet you later.
3. I would like to apologize for forgetting your birthday. 3. Sony for forgetting your birthday/Sorry, I forgot your birthday.
4. Thanks a lot for the present 4. Thank you so much for your present/ Thank you very much.
5. How do you do, Mrs Rao? 5. How are you Mrs. Rao?
6. It is a pleasure to meet you. 6. Nice meeting you.
7. Call me later. 7. Give me a ring later I Please call me later/ afterwards.
8. I just want to express my sincere thanks for all you have done for us. 8. Thanks for all you have done for us
9. I am afraid you’re mistaken 9. I think you are mistaken.
10. More tea? 10. Would you like to have some more tea?
Do you like to have some more tea?

Exercise – III

Give gender-fair or gender – neutral alternatives to the following words phrases and usages.

1. Miss/Mrs
2. Actress
3. Salesman /salesgirl /Salesbo,
4. Poetess
5. Common man
6. Man-made
7. The best man for the job
8. May the best man win!
9. Mankind
10. Man of the match
Answer:

1. Miss /Mrs 1. Madam
2. Actress 2. Star
3. Salesman/salesgirl / Salesboy 3. Salesperson/Sales Assistant
4. Poetess 4. Writer/ Author/ Poet
5. Common man 5. Mass/Commoner
6. Man-made 6. Human – Made
7. The best man for the job 7. The best choice for the job
8. May the best man win! 8. Let the best person win
9. Mankind 9. Human race
10. Man of the match 10. The best player of the match


Exercise – IV.

Rewrite the following sentences to make them more inclusive.

Question 1.
Give the student his scholarship right away.
Answer:
Give the student’s scholarship right away.
Give the scholarship to the student straight away.

Question 2.
As a teacher, he faces excessive paperwork daily.
Answer:
As a teacher, he faces a lot of paper work daily.

Question 3.
Each student should submit his assignment before the last date.
Answer:
Each student should submit the assignment before the last date.

Question 4.
It is the duty of every driver to carry his driver’s license at all times.
Answer:
It is the duty of every driver to carry his driving license at all times.

Question 5.
When a person watches too much television, his brain turns to mush.
Answer:
When a person watches television for a long time, his brain turns to much.

Question 6.
If an employee has a problem with a supervisor, he should discuss the problem with the officer.
Answer:
If an employee has got a problem with a supervisor, they should discuss the problem with the officer.

Question 7.
The average student is worried about his grades.
Answer:
The student of average level is worried about his grades.

Question 8.
Does everybody have his book?
Answer:
Does everybody possess a book.

Question 9.
When the student hands in his paper, assess it immediately.
Answer:
When the student hands over his paper, assess it immediately.

Question 10.
A law-abiding citizen pays his taxes promptly.
Answer:
A law abiding citizen pays the taxes promptly.

Grammar: Common Errors

Exercise-I.

Correct the following sentences.

Question 1.
The chair is made of the wood.
Answer:
The chair is made of wood.

Question 2.
He always eats piece of chocolate after lunch.
Answer:
He always eats a piece of chocolate after lunch.

Question 3.
She told me the interesting story.
Answer: .
She told me an interesting story

Question 4.
He has good idea about the matter.
Answer:
He has a good idea about the matter

Question 5.
I saw him in yellow car.
Answer:
I saw him in the yellow car.

Question 6.
People consider him as a great leader.
Answer:
People consider him a great leader.

Question 7.
I agree with your proposal.
Answer:
I agree to your proposal.

Question 8.
They started to Karimnagar.
Answer:
They went to Karimnagar / They left for Karimnagar.

Question 9.
They will return in this month.
Answer:
They will return within this month.

Question 10.
I suffer with Short-sightedness.
Answer:
I suffer from short sightedness.

Exercise-II.

Correct the following sentences.

Question 1.
The police will cancel your driving license if you will break the rules again.
Answer:
The police will cancel your driving license if you break rules gain.

Question 2.
It is time they start.
Answer:
It is time for them to start

Question 3.
He lives in Delhi for five years.
Answer:
He has lived in Delhi for five years.

Question 4.
If I had known of your arrival, I would meet you.
Answer:
If I had known of your arrival, I would have met you

Question 5.
He was late so he is scolded by the teacher.
Answer:
He was late and so he was scolded by the teacher.

Question 6.
The teacher is taking two classes daily.
Answer:
The teacher takes two classes daily

Question 7.
I am having a headache.
Answer:
I have a headache.

Question 8.
When she sings, you can’t help to listen to her.
Answer:
When she sings, you can’t help listening to her.

Question 9.
He wants that I should do the work.
Answer:
He wants me to do the work.

Question 10.
The students and the teacher is in the class.
Answer:
The students and the teacher are in the class.

Exercise III.

Correct the following sentences.

Question 1.
You need not to tell me again.
Answer:
You need not tell me again

Question 2.
They disposed off all the junk.
Answer:
They disposed off the junk.

Question 3.
He is trying hard to cope up with the situation.
Answer:
He is trying hard to cope up with he situation.

Question 4.
Did you ever read The Jungle Book?
Answer:
Did you read ” The Jungle Book” ?

Question 5.
According to me, it’s true.
Answer:
In my view, it’s true.
I believe, it’s true.

Question 6.
If I will be late, I’ll call you.
Answer:
If I am late, I’ll call you

Question 7.
She tried to quickly finish the book before she had to leave.
Answer:
She tried to finish the book before she had left.

Question 8.
While walking in the garden, he found a sparkling woman’s bracelet.
Answer:
While walking in the garden, he found a woman’s sparkling bracelet.

Question 9.
Please reply back immediately.
Answer:
Please reply immediately.

Question 10.
Being a hot day, the old man did not go out.
Answer:
It being a hot day, the old man did not go out.

OU Degree 6th Sem English Study Material

OU Degree 6th Sem English CV Writing

OU Degree 6th Sem English CV Writing

OU Degree 6th Sem English CV Writing

CV Wining: Chronological CV, Functional CV

Question 1.
Explain the differences between CV, resume and bio data.
Answer:
Curriculum Vitae:
A CV is a summary which is longer and more detailed. It includes academic qualifications, professional experience, and other information such as hobbies, awards, honours, membership of associations, etc, and is of atleast two or three pages long.

It displays general talent rather than specific skills for a specific position. It provides information about all the degrees, jobs and professional skills that you have acquired. It is more suitable for fresh graduates and those applying to academic, scientific and research positions. It is more common in the UK, Europe, New Zealand and many Common wealth countries.

Resume :

Resume is a summary of qualifications, skills and experience. It is a brief and concise statement which is no more than one or both sides of an A4 size sheet. It uses bullets and avoids narrative. It is usually written for a particular job, highlighting the skills that are required for it. More suitable for people with previous work experience or to apply for jobs where skills rather than academic qualifications are important. The word ‘resume’ is used mostly in the USA and Canada.

Bio-data:

Short form In of Biographical Data is a old-fashioned term for resume or CV. The emphasis is a biodata is on personal information such as date of birth, religion, nationality, residence, marital status, etc. It lists educational qualifications and experience in a chronological order. Bio-data is aften made in a format specified by the employer. It is mostly used in South Asian Countries such as India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.

Question 2.
Describe the structure of a chronological CV.
Answer:
Structure of Chronological CV
A chronological CV is the most common and popular format of writing CV. It is used to draw the attention of the employer to ones academic and professional qualifications. It works best if one is a fresh graduate applying for a job.

A chronological CV consists of Six sectors:

1. Personal Information
It includes Name, date of birth/age, postal address, contact phone number, email address

2. Education
List the most recent qualification first. Provide the years of study and the names of the institutions where one had studied. Include the subject options of the course along with grades and divisions.

3. Experience
List the most recent experience first. Provide the name of the employer job title and also nature of work. Mention clearly of any internship or part-time and full time.

4. Skills
Proficiency in languages, computer skills or why other skill can be mentioned.

5. Interests and Achievements
Mention if won awards or honours or have published any articles, Give details of any type of volunteer work. Hobbies or interest of the person can be included.

6. References
Give atleast two names of people one from place of study or from work place. If not experience, give the reference of an older family friend who has known you for some time. Make sure that the referes are informed and willing to give you a reference. Give then contact numbers/e-mails addresses.

Covering letter
While sending a CV, indude a covering letter, providing a short (3-5 lines) profile or personal statement describing the applicants current status and career objective. Do not repeat the information already given in the CV.

Question 3.
Construct a chronological CV In response to each of the following advertisements. (You may assume that you have all the required abilities and are eligible to apply)

a. Wanted: A service advisor at our Kolkata office. Preferably an MBA with a minimum of 2 years of relevant experience. A pleasant personality and good communication skills are essential. Please send your detailed CV to Topcel Toyota, 25, Ganesh Chandra Avenue, Kolkata, 700013.
Email address: topcel@emall.com.

1. Name : M. Sukumar

2. Date of birth/age : 25 years

3. Address : 8-1-9/51, Maruthi Nagar,
Santosh Nagar,
Hyderabad – 500059.

4. Education : MBA with Distinction (2012 – 2015)
Osmania University
B.Sc with 85% mark
(2009 – 2012) – IIMC college, Hyderabad.

5. Experience : Worked as a Business Co-ordinator, for two years at Aindhri Innovations, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad.

6. Skills : Computer skills : PGDCA
Python
Ms office
Languages known: English, Hindi and Telugu

7. Interests and achievements: Employee of the year 2017 for contribution to corporate life.
College level Football player at IIMC college,
Hyderabad.

8. References :
1. Prof Acharyulu. P
HOD – Commerce Department, KVR College,
Hyderabad.

2. Mr. MBVS Kumar
General Manager, Aindhirl Innovations,
Hyderabad.

Covering Letter

To
The Personal Manager,
Topicei Toyota, 25,
Ganesh Chandra Avenue,
Kolkata.
Sir,
I am here with enclosing my CV for your kind penisal. It Is in connection with the post of service advisor advertised by your company. Be kind enough to consider favourably.
Yours faithfully
M. Sukumar

(b) A well-established private limited company dealing in foreign trade would like to hire a lady secrebry with a bachelor’s degree and good command- over English and stenography; knowledge of the French language is an added advantage. Apply within a week. Box No.8625, The Times, New
Delhi, 110002. Email address: hrtlmes@email.com
Name : Miss Nimmy

2. Age : 24 years

3. Education :
2007 — 2010 : B.A.(Economics with Political Science and Geography) with 70%
2005 — 2007 : Intermediate from BIE, Royal Junior college, Hyderabad.

4. Experience : 2012 – worked as Frsonal Assistant for one year in Prime Technologies, Champapet, Hyderabad.

5. Skills : Passed Higher grade exams is shorthand and type writing from SBTEI Hyderabad.
Computer Skills : MS office and PG Diploma in Computers.
Languages Known : English, Hindi, Telugu and French.

6. Interests and Achievements : Best student award at Osmania University (2012) both academic and extra cumcular activities.

7. References :

1. Mr. Ram Babu, Director
Prime Technologies,Champapet,
Hyderabad

2. Mrs. Rohini Devi
Lecturer in Political Science.
Koti Women’s College, Hyderabad.

Covering Letter

To
The HR
Box No. 8625,
The Times
New Delhi – 110002.
I am enclosing herewith my CV for your Kind perusal and necessary favourable action. It is in connection with the advertisement for the post of Lady secretary. Hope you will consider the CV favourably.
Yours faithfully
Nimmy

c. Wanted for a reputed company an Estate Manager for disposal of land and building situated near New Delhi. Persons with experience of working with reputed builders may apply. Salary commensurate with experience. Apply in strict confidence to Box 8622, The Local Times, Hyderabad. 500003. Email address: land dealspvt@email.com
Answer:
1. Name : K. Sheena Joyce
2. Age : 26years
3. Educational

Qualifications : Diploma in Civil Engineering with 85% marks from JNTU, Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh.
Intermediate with 75% from BIE, Kakinada,
Andhra Pradesh.

4. Experience : Worked for two years with R & D builders, Kakinada, AP

5. Skills : Computer Skills : Frontpage, Page Maker, Oracle
Languages Known : English, Hindi and Telugu

6. Interests and
Achievements : Printing and Drawing
Class Topper is Diploma in Civil Engineering

7. References :

  • Mrs. Sumana, Lecturer in Civil Engineering, JNTU, Kakinada.
  • Mrs. Prasanna, HR Manager. R & D Builders, Kakinada.

Coveting Letter:

To
The Chairman
Box No. 8622
The local times,
Hyderabad – 500003.
Sir,
I am enclosing herewith my CV for your Kind perusal and necessary favourable action. It is in connection with the advertisement for the post of ‘Estate Manager’.
Yours faithfully
Sheena Joyce

d. We are a reputed IT company looking for software professionals for our development centre In Warangal. Experience of I to 4 years as a software engineer in the IT Industry is preferred. Fresh graduates In engineering with extensive exposure to designs, development and testing will also be considered. Apply with in a week with a detailed CV to Clarity Solutions, 34, Maltri Vanam, Ameerpet. Hyderabad 500045. Email address: clearsol@email.com
Answer:
1. Name : P Sumitra

2. Age : 28 years

3. Educational
Qualification : BE in CSC frôm Aditya Engineering college,
Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh (2008 – 2012)
Intermediate with MPC from Aditya Junior
College, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh (2006.08).

4. Experience : Working as a process associate in Accenture IT company in Hyderabad.

5. Skills : Computer Skills – MS Office

  • Page Maker
  • SAP Functional

Languages known – English, Hindu and Telugu.

6. Interests and Achievements :
Employee of the year (2014 – 15)
College level Volleyball player, Víjayawada.

7. References :

1. P Sundar Rao
Associate Professor
Mitya Engineering college
Vijayawada, AP

2. Mrs.KSundari
HR Manager,
Accenture IT Company,
Vijayawada, AP

Covering Letter:

The Personnel Manager
Clarity Solutions
34 Maitrivanam, Arneerpet,
Hyderabad-500045
I am enclosing here with my CV for your kind perusal and necessary favourable action. It is in connection with the advertisement for the post of ‘Software Professional for your development centre in Warangal.
Yours faithfully
P Sumitra.

Functional CV

Question 1.
Explain the differences between chronological and functional CVs.
Answer:
A chronological CV has six Important parts. They are as follows:

  • Personal information
  • Education
  • Experience
  • Skills
  • Interests and Achievements

Functional CV has six elements. They are as follows;

  • Personal Information
  • Skills and Abilities
  • Career History
  • Education and Training
  • Interests and Achievements / Additional Information
  • References

Note : Both the types of CV, requires covering letter,

Question 2.
Describe the structure of a functional CV.
Answer:
A functional CV has the same structure as the chronological CV
Structure of functional CV

1. Personal Information
Name, age, postal address, contact phone number, email address etc. Come under personal information

2. Skills and Abilities
The focus of a functional CV is on the skills and abilities that you passess rather than when and where you have acquired them. The function you have done previously should be mentioned.

3. Career History
A brief summary of your career. Describe your role and responsibility in each job.

4. Education and Training
Mention the skills one acquire while undergoing the course of study Highlight the skills that are relevant to the jab how applied for.

5. Interests and Achievements / Additional Information
Mention interests that are relevant to the job applied for or those that reflect on your personality.

6. References
The applicant may give two references. Covering letter is also required.

Question 3.
Construct a functional CV in response to each of the following advertisements. (You may assume that you have all the required abilities and are eligible to apply)

a. Wanted: A service advisor at our Kolkata office. Preferably an MBA with a minimum of 2 years of relevant experience. A pleasant personality and good communication skills are essential. Please send your detailed CV to Topcel Toyota, 25, Ganesh Chandra Avenue, Kolkata, 700013. Email address: topcel@ email.com

1. Personal Information

a. Name : K. Vijay Kumar
b. Age : 26 years
c. Address : K Vijay kumar
8-4-87 Manikonda, Hyderabad – 500012.
d. Phone No : 9885098850
e. Email ID : kumarvijay@gmail.com
lam an MBA from Osmania University. I am interested to work with your firm. lam good at communication skills.

2. Skills and Abilities : Worked as a team leader is Genpact.

3. Career History : Team leader and Co-ordinator in CMC, Hyderabad.

4. Educational and Training : Completed MBA from Osmania University in 2014.

5. Interests and Achievements: ‘Best student award from the University of Hyderabad. PG Certificate course in ‘Business Management’.

6. References :
1. Mr. Rohit
Lecturer in Economics
University of Hyderabad

2. Mr Kavitha K
MA,
HOD, English,
Arts college, Osmania University
Hyderabad.

b. A well-established private limited company dealing in foreign trade would like to hire a lady secretary with a bachelor’s degree and good command over English and stenography; knowledge of the French language Is an added advantage. Apply within a week. Box No.8625, The Times, New Delhi, 110002. Email address: hrtlmes@email.com Personal Information.
Answer:
Personal Information
1. Name : Y. Rashmi
2. Age : 27 years
3. Address : 18-6-200/B
Ram Nagar,
Secunderabad

2. Skills and Abilities : Worked as team leader and trained the members of the team for better co-ordination in business matters.

3. Career History : Co-ordinator, Business Development Sector
Ramki Industries, Hyderabad.
Coordination among the members Marketing
Manager Reddy’s Lab, Hyderabad.

4. Education and Training : MHRM from Osmania University in 2015.
PGDTE for EFW is 2016.

5. Interests and Achievements: Best Employee Award from Ramki Industries,
Hyderabad.
Dancing and Singing.

6. References :
1. Dr. P Melantha Jessie
HOD, Professor in Management.
Osmania University,
Hyderabad

2. Prof. Srìnivas. A,
Associate Professor.
Nizam College,
Hyderabad.

c. Wanted for a reputed company an Estate Manager for the disposal of land and building situated near New’ Delhi. Persons with experience of working with reputed builders may apply. Salary commensurate with experience. Apply in strict confidence to Box 8622, The Local Times, Hyderabad, 500003. Email address: landdealspvt@’emall.com

1. Personal Information
a. Name : Esther Rani
b. Age : 28
c. Address : t-1.No. 154/4
Santosh Nagar, Hyderabad
d. Contact No. : 9849098490
e. Email Id : estherrani@gmail.com

2 Skills and Abilities : Worked as supervisor in Rakesh Builders,
Lakdi Kapool, Hyderabad.
Worked for Reddy Labs, Hyderabad as
Medical Representative.

3. Career History : Language coordinator, Prime Technologies,
Hyderabad. (2016)
Marketing head, In house Ltd, Secunderabad (2014.15).
Training the trainers, co-ordinating with the HR
department.

4. Education and Training : M Tech is Civil Engineering from Andhra University is 2014.
B Tech from JNTU, Kakinada Andhra University in 2012,

5. Interests and Achievements
Additional Information : An active member of NGO “AWAAZ taking care of Orphans.
Best student Award 2012 In B.Tech
Proficient in Hindu. English, Telugu and French

6. References :

1. Ms. Samina Mirza
Hard, HR, and Training
Prime Technologies
Hyderabad – 500032.

2. Prof MS.Rao
HOD, Department of English
Osmania University
Hyderabad- 500007.

d. We are a reputed IT company looking for software professionals for our development centre in Warangal. Experience of 1 to 4 years as a software engineer in the IT Industry is preferred. Fresh graduates in engineering – with extensive exposure to designs, development and testing will also be considered. Apply within a week with a detailed CV to Clarity Solutions, 34. Maitri Vanam, Ameerpet, Hyderabad 500045. Email address: clearsol@email.com.
Answer:
a. Personal Information

1. Name K. Jayden
Age : 28yrs
Address : Plot No. 42, Maruthi Residency.
Maruthi Nagar, Hyderabad – 500059
Phone : 8886989892
Email Id : Jayden@ 16 gmaiLcom

2. Skills and Abilities : Team leader in CSC. Hitech City, Hyderabad
Trained the members of my team for better co-ordination.
Interpersonal Communication Skills

3. Career History : Worked closely with product team on scope of future projects and innovations.
Identified and dealt with a significant process bottle neck that boosted coding efficiency.

4. Education and Training; 13.Sc Computer Science from Lucknow state
University. Uttar Pradesh in 2013.
Member of the LSU Men in Computing and
Society of Software Engineers Student Organizations.

5. Interests and
Achievements: Artistic activities such as paiting or graphic design.
Awarded with first prize in Athletics in Inter
Collegiate Competition.

6. References :
1. Mr. M.S.Suman
HOD, Department of Computer Science
Uttar Pradesh.

2. Mr. M. Supnya
Project Manager CSC,
Hitech City, Hyderabad.

OU Degree 6th Sem English Study Material

OU Degree 6th Sem English Unit 5 Vocabulary, Grammar

OU Degree 6th Sem English Unit 5 Vocabulary, Grammar

OU Degree 6th Sem English Unit 5 Vocabulary, Grammar

Exercise – I.

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word as per the context.

1. She said to her boss, “My ———– works at a factory.” (dad/father).
2. He ———– his mobile for any messages, (checked/verified).
3. My friend ———– me about this issue, (told/informed).
4. The government has ordered the CBI to ———– the case, (look into/investigate).
5. “I need your ———– in solving this problem,” said the chairperson to the committee members, (help/assistance).
Answers:
1. father
2. checked
3. told
4. investigate
5. assistance

Exercise – II.

Question 1.
Place the word. given below in the appropriate column of the table. Refer to a dictionary if necessary.
OU Degree 6th Sem English Unit 5 Vocabulary, Grammar 1

Formal Informal
Purchases Handy
Commence: Guy
Resume Loo
Thus Need
Reckon Terrific

Question 2.
Now match the words in the above table with words from this list.
OU Degree 6th Sem English Unit 5 Vocabulary, Grammar 2
Answer:

Formal Informal
1. Purchase (7) Handy
2. Commence (6) Guy
3. Resuma (9) Loo
4. Thus (8) Need
5. Reckon (4) Therefore
6. Man (2) Start
7. Convenient (1) Buy
8. Require (3) Start again
9. Restroom (5) Think
10. Terrific (10) Fantastic

Exercise – III

Identify the formal and informal expressions among the following.

1. I’d be very grateful if you could … ( )
2. Amazing! ( )
3. That’s great, thanks. ( )
4. He has been monitoring my movement carefully. ( )
5. Congratulations on your success. ( )
6. Well done buddy! ( )
7. You’ve got that wrong. ( )
8. You must be kidding! ( )
9. Cool hairstyle! ( )
10. I think you may be mistaken on this point. ( )
Answers:
1. Formal
2. Informal
3. Informal
4. Formal
5. Informal
6. Informal
7. Formal
8. Informal
9. Informal
10. Formal

Exercise – IV.

Rewrite the following sentences in informal English using appropriate vocabulary.

1. I would like to apologlse for forgetting your birthday.
2. I requested for a Laptop.
3. My brother established his business in 2007.
4. When did he discover the truth?
5. The price of land has increased manifold.
Answers:
1. I am sorry for forgetting your birthday.
2. I want a laptop.
3. My brother started his business in 2007.
4. When did he get to know about the truth?
5. The price of the Land has increased many times.

Exercise – V.

Rewrite these sentences in formal English using appropriate vocabulary.

1. He got the first rank in the entrance test.
2. This book is not very cheap.
3. My kids didn’t go to school.
4. I will get in touch with you.
5. There are lot of parks in the city.
Answers:
1. He secured first rank in the entrance test.
2. This book is expensive.
3. My children didn’t go to school.
4. I will be in contact with you.
5. There are so many parks in the city / There are lot many parks in the city.

Exercise – VI.

Give the formal equivalents of the following Informai words or expressions.

1. in the end
2. get in touch
3. call on
4. wrong
5. show
6. let
7. give up
8. death
9. chance
10. leave out
Answers:
1. in the end – Eventually I Finally
2. get in touch – Contad
3. call on – Ask / request I plead
4. wrong – incorrect
5. show – display / exhibit / demonstrate
6. let – allow
7. give up – quit / abandon I cease
8. death – demise
9. chance – opportunity
10. leave out – except! exclude /eliminate

Exercise VII

a. Rewrite the following letter in more appropriate formal English.
Dear Mr. Sharma
We’re really sorry toy that we can’t lend you the sum of five Lakh rupees that you need and asked for. But we can perhaps give you a loan for some of the money. If you are still interested, you can get in touch with our main branch and fix up a meeting with the assistant manager. He will be happy to talk to you about it. Sincerely
Answer:
Dear Mr. Sharma
We apologise for not lending you the sum of five lakh rupees you requested for. But
we can provide you a loan.
If you are interested, contact our main branch and fix an appointment with the assistant manager. He will be happy to talk to you.
Sincerely

b. Rewrite the following text message In informal English.
Dear Mother
I wish to inform you that I will not be able to reach home early this evening. I will be going out for dinner with my friends. I request you not to wait for me. Moreover, please finish your dinner and go to sleep. I have my set of keys with me. Good night.
Answer:
Dear Mother
I want to tell you that I cannot reach home early this evening. I am going for dinner along with my friends. Please do not wait for me. Finish your dinner and sleep. I have one more set of keys with me Good night.

Grammer Sentences:

Exercise – I.

Which of the following are sentences?

1. All things taken into account.
2. On the table.
3. She smiled,
4. The old shed with the bird cage next to it.
5. This year I may not be lucky.
6. Cupboard full of attractive children’s books.
7. Writing on the wall.
8. Behind most successful people, there is commitment and hard work.
9. This is interesting.
10. Very long queue.

Only four of the above are sentences, the others are phrases and do not make complete sense. A phrse is never an independent structure, making some sense but never complete sense. A phrase requires a verb in order to make complete sense.

From the above examples it is also dear that sentences can be very short and phrases can be very long. For instance, sentence No. 3 above is the shortest with two words but is a complete sentence whereas No. 4 consists often words but is not a sentence. Now, let us look at the three sentence types:

Simple Sentence
Read the following sentences:

  • flowers are beautiful.
  • The nightingale sings.

What are these sentences about? The first sentence is about ‘lowers” and the second is about “the nightingale”. So, “flowers” and ‘nightingale” are the subjects of the two sentences.

Next let us see what we are saying about the subject “flowers” and “the nightingale”. We are saying that the flowers “are beautiful” and the nightingale “sings.” The verb describes what the subject is or what the subject does or what happens to the subject.

  • A simple sentence contains a noun or a noun group called the subject.
  • The subject is the person or thing that the sentence is about.
  • This is followed by a verb or a verb group, which tells you what the subject is doing, or describes the subject’s situation.
  • Thus, ‘simple’ in a simple sentence has nothing to do with length or easiness.
  • A simple sentence may be very short or considerably long.

Example

  • I waited.
  • Hema was screaming loudly.
  • The dog in the corridor started barking ferociously.
  • Did she win a medal in the Olympics?
  • The government has decided to appoint a senior IAS officer to chair the committee constituted for enquiring into the massive scam.

Exercise – II.

Identify the subject or the noun group and the verb group in the following sentences.

1. The Araku valley is one of India’s most beautiful regions.
2. The company offered him a very good salary.
3. The members of the Covid patient’s family were also asked to undergo the test.
4. My father puts milk, sugar and lemon in his tea.
5. I did not find the film very interesting.

Compound Sentence
Read the following sentences:
1. a. The room was dark. I turned on the light.
b. The room was dark, so I turned on the light.

2. a. It began to rain. I didn’t open my umbrella.
b. It began to rain but I didn’t open my umbrella.

In sentence la and 2a, there are two independent simple sentences: The room was dark” and “I turned on the light”, and “It began to rain” and “I didn’t open my umbrella”. In sentences Ib and 2b, the two simple sentences are combined with the conjunctions “so” and “but”. The conjunctions “so” and “but” in the sentences Ib and 2b make the relationship between the two sentences very clear. Such sentences are known as compound sentences.

  • A compound sentence is formed when two or more simple sentences are combined by means of co-ordinating conjunctions.
  • The components or the simple sentences are known as clauses.
  • A clause is a group of words containing a verb ie., clauses usually consist of a subject and a verb group.
  • Clauses are of two types: independent and dependent.
  • In a compound sentence, the clauses are essentially independent sentences which could stand alone.
  • And the clauses are of equal importance known as coordinate clauses joined together by coordinating conjunctions.
  • Co-ordinating conjunctions such as for, and, nor, but, or, yet and so join sentence elements of equal grammatical rank such as words, phrases and clauses.

Eg:

1. Take the sweets and distribute it among your friends.
2. He is lazy yet he gets the highest marks in the group.
3. He is not completely frank nor is he friendly.
4. I did not make it clear or you were not paying attention me.
5. I arrived late so I missed the beginning of the lecture.
6. He didn’t like the film but his sister found it interesting.
Answers:
1. Subject – The Araku valley
Noun group – One of India’s must beautiful regions.

2. Subject – The company
Verb – Offered
Noun group – him a very dood salary

3. Subject – The members of the Covid patient’s family
Verb – asked
Noun group – to undergo the test

4. Subject – My father
Verb – puts
Noun group – milk, sugar, and lemon in his tea.

Exercise III.

Choose the appropriate conjunction to make it into a compound sentence.

1. I have already written to him _________ (but/so) I expect a reply soon.
2. You can keep this bag _________  (so/or) look for a new one.
3. He could not catch the bus _________  (nor/or) was he able take the train.
4. This land is fertile _________  (but/therefore) we paid a high price for it.
5. The boy worked very hard _________  (so/but) he could not achieve his goal.
Answer:
1. so
2. or
3. nor
4. therefore
5. but

Exercise IV.

Identify the main clause and the subordinate clause.

1. He is successful because he is very honest.
2. She showed up when I needed her the most.
3. He was declared not guilty as there was no evidence against him.
4. The girl who was here yesterday is a student of mine.
5. He acted as if he knew the truth.
Answer:
1. Main clause : He is successful
Subordiante clause : because he is very honest

2. Main clause : She showed up
Subordiante clause : when I needed her the most

3. Main clause : He was declared not guilty
Subord jante clause : as there was no evidence against him

4. Main clause : The girl
Subordiante clause : who was here yesterday is a student of mine.

5. Main clause : He acted
Subordiante clause : as if he knew the truth

Exercise V.

Choose the appropriate conjunction to make It into a complex sentence.

1. The were going by car …………. (because/so) it was more comfortable.
2. …………. (Though/Because) he was only 15, they offered him a seat in the university.
3. Aeroplanes carry parachutes …………. (that/because) the crew can escape in case of an emergency.
4. The security forces ordered (that/if) the area should be cleared.
5. The announcer explained (why/though) the train was delayed.
Answers:
1. Because
2. through
3. because
4. that
5. why

Exercise VI.

Identify the type of sentence.

1. The bird sat on the branch of a neem tree.
2. I don’t care how expensive it is!
3. Two minutes ago the baby was fast asleep, but now he is crying.
4. He is not tall enough to join the military.
5. You can wait or leave.
Answer:
1. Simple sentence
2. Exclamatory sentence
3. Compound sentence
4. Complex sentence
5. Imperative sentence / Command

Exercise VII.

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate conjunctions given below.

but or so because although

1. ________ it was hot, he was wearing a shawl.
2. She was sick ________ she didn’t come to college.
3. The teacher appreciated me ________ I was very punctual.
4. Do you want a cup of tea ________ do you prefer coffee?
5. They wanted to go the picnic, ________ the parents did not permit them.
Answers:
1. Although
2. so
3. because
4. or
5. but

Exercise VIII

Combine the two sentences using the word given in brackets.

1. It’s an old laptop. It works okay, (although)
2. There were not enough students. They dosed the village school, (as)
3. Nobody wanted to go. They cancelled the trip, (so)
4. It was very hot. They could not play outdoors, (because)
5. Do you want to take up a job? Do you prefer business? (or)
Answers:
1. Although it’s an old laptop. It works okay,
2. As there were not enough students, they closed the village school
3. Nobody wanted to go so they cancelled the trip
4. They could not play outdoors because it was very hot
5. Do you want to take up a job or do you prefer business

OU Degree 6th Sem English Study Material

Third Suggestion Questions and Answers & Summary by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

Third Suggestion Questions and Answers & Summary by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

OU Degree 6th Sem English – Third Suggestion Questions and Answers & Summary

Comprehension I (Short Answer Questions)

Question 1.
Is cooking a natural or an acquired skill?
Answer:
The knowledge of cooking does not come naturally. It is not pre-installed. Cooking is learned. It is a domestic work in general – is a life skill that both men and women should ideally have, It is also a skill that can elude both men and women.

Question 2.
Why is cooking considered an important skill for young women?
Answer:
Cooking is considered an important skill for young women. It is some kind of marriageability test for women. There are debates about women and cooking in Nigerian social media about how wives have to cook for husbands.

Question 3.
Is domestic work simply a task or specifically a woman’s job?
Answer:
Domestic work is simply a task but it is being told to girls to do all the house chores works. It should not be considered as a specific task for only girls but even boys should also be taught to sweep and clean the surroundings.

Question 4.
How should advice for improvement be given without making it gender specific?
Answer:
The idea of gender specific can be improved if we do not tell that a girl should or should not do something because she is a girl. Work should be assigned to boys as well. When it comes to cooking it is also a skill that can elude both men and women.

Question 5.
Describe Adichie’s experience in the garments store.
Answer:
Adichie visits a children’s shop to chizalum an outfit. She observes there that in the girl’s section the outfits were in washed-out shades of pink. Whereas in the boy’s section they are vibrant shades of blue. Then she bought a blue outfit thinking it would be adorable for a baby girl.

At the checkout counter the cashier says that her choice was the perfect match for a boy Michi tells here that it was for a baby girl. The woman looked horrified saying how come blue for a girl’. It was then Adichie realized that the world started to invent gender roles.

Question 6.
What does Adichie notice in the toy section?
Answer:
Adichie noticed, the toy section which was arranged according to gender. Toys for boys are mostly active and has sort of articles like trains and cars whereas in the toys for girls are the most passive and overwhelming dolls. She was so shocked how the society has started to invent ideaš of what a boy should be and what a girl should be.

Question 7.
How does she wish the clothes and toys were arranged?
Answer:
She wished to display. the baby clothes organized by age and displayed in all colour because the bodies of male and female infants are similar. She also wished to arrange the toys by type rather than by gender.

Question 8.
What effect would curbing natural behaviour have on the development of personality?
Answer:
Adichie says that we should not place the straitjacket of gender roles on young children, we should give them space to reach their full potential. We have to see a child as an individual rather thinking her of a girl the way she is. We need to look at an individual’s weaknesses and strenghts. Never to measure her on a scale of what a girl should be but measure he on a scale of being the best version of herself.

Question 9.
What might result from freeing children from gender role restrictions?
Answer:
If we free children from gender role restrictions we will give them space to reach their full potential. The can case their needs, true desire and happiness. They will be more self-reliant.

Question 10.
How are baby boys and baby girls trained to behave in the playground?
Answer:
There was a place in the pacific Northwest which was an american living. Where the mothers of baby girls were very restraining, constantly telling the girls not to touch anything or to stop and be nice. On the other side, boys were encouraged to explore more and were not restrained as much and were never told to be nice.

Question 11.
Although Adichie gives many examples, the passage is titled in the singular: “Third Suggestion”. So, what is that suggestion?
Answer:
Adichie begins the book by explaining how a few yeas ago a good friend of hers asked her how to raise her baby girl as a feminist. She says in her third suggestion that a child should or should not do something because of their gender conditioned gender roles such as the pink versus blue and toy differentiation are difficult to unlearn therefore it is important that children reject them form the beginning.

Question 12.
What should be taught to children intead of gender roles?
Answer;
Children should be taught of self reliant to do for herself and fend for herself. Teach them to try to fix physical things when they break. Instead Fo assuming that they can’t do many things let them try. They might not succeed but let them try.

Comprehension II (Essay Type Answer Questions)

Question 1.
How according to Adichie are gender roles invented and perpetuated?
Answer:
Adiche says that the idea of ‘gender roles’ is absolute nonsense. She discovered the way the world started to invent gender roles. She gives an account of her life when she visits to a children’s shop to buy her friend’s daughter Chizalum an outfit. There she finds girls’ section were pale creations in washed-out shades of pink.

She did not like them. She finds the boy’s section had outfits in vibrant shades of blue. She Likes them and feels that blue would be suitable to the girl against her brown skin. She buys it and while she checks out of counter the cashier tells her that the present is perfect for the boy. Immediately she says that it was for a baby girl then the cashier looks horrified saying ‘Blue for a girl’.

Adichie she wonders there was also a ‘gender neutral section’. With its array of bloodless reys. She feels ‘Gender – neutral, is silly it is premised on the idea of male being blue and female being pink and gender-neutral being its own category. She was confused and wishes to organize baby clothes by age and to be displayed in all colours as the bodies of male and female infants are similar.

She also observes a toy section which was also arranged by gender. Toys of the boys are mostly active and have some sort of things such as trains and cars. Whereas the toys of the girls were passive and are over whelmingly dolls. She was struck by this She wishes that the toys had been arranged by type, rather than by gender.

Question 2.
Explain how and why It benefits children If their strengths and weaknesses are seen “In an individual way”.
Answer:
It is very beneficial if we can locate individuals strengths and weaknesses. If we do not place the strait jacket of gender roles on young children, we give them space to reach their full potential. Never discriminate a child by their gender.

Not as a girl who should be a certain way See the individual’s strengths and weaknesses so that a child should be measured on a scale of being the best version of his/ her ownself. In this way they will definitely follow their true desires, needs and happiness. They will be more self-reliant doing everything themselves. Moreover, they might not fully succeed but they may try for what they want.

Question 3.
Summarise Adichie’s argument that the idea of gender roles is “absolute nonsense”.
Answer:
Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie argues that the idea of ‘gender roles is absolute nonsense. She says that do not ever tell that a girl should or should not do some work because she is a girl. She gives her own experience of how she was told to bend down properly while sweeping. She wished instead of saying so it would have been good if she was asked to bend down and sweep properly because the floor becomes better.

And do wished her brother had been also told the thing. Adichie futher says that when it comes to mamageability cooking is considered to be one of the test for women but she says that it is a skill that can elude both men and women. She also gives an account of children outfit shop and toy shop where the outfits colour for girls were pale shades of pink whereas for boys it was virbant shades of blue. Even in toy shop boys toys were active and girls to’s were passive.

She also mentions about how few of the mothers in an American living were resisting their baby girls to be nice where in baby boys were not restrained as much and were almost never told to be nice. Gender roles are so deeply conditioned that they will then follow them even when they chafe against mie desires, needs and happiness.

Question 4.
Compare and contrast the Instructions given by the mother in Jamaica Kincald’s poem “Girl” and the advice given here by Adichie.
Answer:
The prose poem ‘Girl’ written by Jamaica Kincaid’s follows the rules of conventional poetry the only characteristics in the poem are a mother and a daughter, It is a mother giving her young daughter advice an important life issues and concerns. The advice consists of how to do certain domestic behaviours, including making Antigun dishes, as well as the more assertive points of being a respectable woman and upholding sexual purity.

There is a lot of discussion from the mother about how the daughter must interact with people as well as how to behave in a romantic relationship with a man. This is what the poem conveys. In this regard, Adichie advises that gender roles are so deeply conditioned in us that we will often follow them even when they chafe against our true desires, our needs, our happiness.

They are very difficult to unlearn, and it is important to try to make sure that girl’s reject them from the beginning. Instead of letting the girl internalize the idea of gender roles, teach her self-reliance. In this way girl will be able to do things for herself and find for herself.

Third Suggestion Poem Summary in English

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie (born 1977) is an award-winning Nigerian writer. Her publications include three novels (Purple Hibiscus [2003]), Half of a Yellow Sun [2006], Americanah [2013], a short story collection. The Thing Around Your Neck [2009)], and several essays. Her 2012 TEDx talk, “We Should All Be Feminists”, has been viewed more than five million times on YouTube. Her work has been translated into 30 languages and has received international recognition.

The present extract is from Adichie’s manifesto written in of a letter which was later published as a book titled Dear Jeawele, or A Feminist Manifesto in Fifteen Suggestions (2017). The book had its origins in a personal email Adichie wrote to a friend, a jeweler, who had asked for advice about how to raise her daughter as a feminist. Adichie’s response consisted of fifteen suggestions and deals with a range of issues related to gender inequality and prejudices and how to challenge them.

This work is the product of a correspondence between Adichie and her friend Jeawele, Jeawele just given birth to a baby girl, Chizalum, and asked Adichie for advice on how to raise her to be a feminist Here response forms the basis of his manifesto, which was first published by known publishers the 2017. The book references ongoing gender inequality in both countries (Nigeria and United states) and draws comparison between the two cultures.

The purpose is to undo this gender inequality by raising girls to reject traditional gender roles and expectations. As Adichie characterises it, gender roles are like a straitjacket designed to restrict women’s freedom and limit their potential. Here hope is that this u.ork will contribute to a more gender-equal world.

The third suggestion is the most theoretically heavy portion of the book. It introduces the concept of gender roles and discusses to what extent a culture constructs gender by conditioning men and women to behave differently we are often told that the reason men and women behave as they do is because of their gender: Men are active, rational and industrious because they are y. omen are passive, emotional, and caring because they are women. We are told that our gender dictates how we will perform at certain task or react in certain situations. Our gender. essentially, defines who we are and limits what we recapable of as individuals.

This view treats gender as though its natural simply a fact of human nature that we are all born with. But the author argues, this couldn’t be further from the truth. In her view, boys and girls are born equal, and its society that thrusts gender roles onto children by conditioning them to behave differently based on their sex.

Third Suggestion Poem Summary in Telugu

చిమమండ న్గోజీ అడిచీ (జననం 1977) అవార్డు గెలుచుకున్న నైజీరియన్ రచయిత. ఆమె ప్రచురణలలో మూడు నవలలు (పర్పుల్ హైబిస్కస్ [2003], హోఫ్ ఆఫ్ ఎ ఎల్లో సన్ [2006], అమెరికానాహ్ [2013]), ఒక చిన్న కథా సంకలనం (ది థింగ్ ఎరౌండ్ యువర్ నెక్ [2009) మరియు అనేక వ్యాసాలు ఉన్నాయి. ఆమె 2012 TEDx చర్చ, “మనమంతా స్త్రీవాదులు కావాలి”, ఐదు మిలియన్ల కంటే ఎక్కువ సార్లు వీక్షించబడింది. ఆమే రచనలు 30 భాషల్లోకి అనువదించబడ్డాయి మరియు అంతర్జాతీయ గుర్తింపు పొందాయి.

ప్రస్తుత సారం అడిచీ యొక్క మానిఫెస్టో నుండి లేఖ రూపంలో వ్రాయబడింది, అది తరువాత డియర్ ఇజ్యావెల్ లేదా ఎ ఫెమినిస్ట్ మ్టానిఫెస్టో ఇన్ ఫిఫ్టీన్ సజెషన్స్ (2017) పేరుతో పస్తకంగా ప్రచురించబడింది. తన కుమార్తెను స్త్రీవాదిగా ఎలా పెంచాలనే దాని గురించి సలహా అడిగిన ఇజ్యావేలే అనే స్నేహితుడికి ఆదిచీ రాసిన వ్యక్తకగ ఇ ఇ-మెయిల్లో ఈ పుస్తకం మూలాలు ఉన్నాయి. ఆదిచీ యొక్క ప్రతిస్పందన పదిహేను సూచనలు మరియు లింగ అసమానత మరియు పక్షపాతాలకు సంబంధించిన సమస్యల శ్రేణిని మరియు వాదిని ఎలా సవాలు చేయాలనే దానితో వ్యవహరించింది.

ఈ రచనలు అడిచీ మరియు ఆమె స్నేహితురాలు ఇజియావేలే మధ్య జరిగిన ఉత్తర ప్రత్యుత్తరాల ఉత్పత్తి, ఇజియావేలే ఇప్పుడే చిజాలస్ అనే ఆడబిడ్డకు జన్మనిచ్చింది మరియు ఆమెను స్త్రీవాదిగా ఎలా పెంచాలో సలహా కోసం ఆదిచీని అడిగాడు, ఇక్కడ ప్రతిస్పందన అతని మానిఫెస్టో ఆధారంగా ఉంది, ఇది మొదటిసారిగా knopf పబ్లిషర్స్ ద్వారా 2017లో ప్రచురించబడింది.

పస్తకం రెండు దేశాలలో (నైటీరియా మరియు యునైటెడ్ స్టేట్స్) కొనసాగుతున్న లింగ అసమానతలను సూచిస్తుంది మరియు రెండు సంస్తృతుల మధ్య పోలికను చూపుతుంది. రేడిషనల్ అంచనాల: రంస్కరించేలా అమ్మాయిలను పెంచడం ద్వారా ఈ లింగ అసతానత రద్దు చేయడం దీని ఉద్దేశం. అడిపి వర్ణించినట్లుగా, లింగ పాత్రలు స్తీల భయాన్ని పరిమితం చేయడానికి మరియు వారి సామర్థ్యాన్ని పరిమితం చేయడాసికి రూపొందించిన స్టెయిట్జాకెట్ లాuటివి. ఈ పని మరింత లింగ సమాన ప్రపంచానికి దోహదం చేస్తుందని ఇక్కడ ఆశిస్తున్నాము.

మూడవ సూచన పుస్తకం యొక్క అత్యంత సిద్ధాంతపరంగా భారీ భాగం. ఇది లింగ పాత్రల భావనను పరిచయం చేస్తుంది మరియు పురుషులు మరియు మహిళలు భిన్నంగా ప్రవర్తించేలా ఒక సంస్ృతి లింగాన్ని ఎంతవరకు పరిమితం చేస్తుందో చర్చిస్తుంది: పురుషులు మరియు మహిళలు వారి లింగం కారణంగా ప్రవర్తించడానికి కారణం: పురుషులు చురుకుగా, హేతుబద్ధంగా మరియు వారు స్తీలు కాబట్టి శరమజీవులు. మనం నిర్దిష్ట పనిని ఎలా నిర్వహించాలో లేదా నిర్దిష్ట పరిస్థితుల్లో ఎలా ప్రతిస్పందించాలో మన లింగం నిర్దేశిస్తుందని మాకు చెప్పబడింది. మన లింగం, ముఖ్లంగా, మనం ఎవరో నిర్వచిస్తుంది మరియు వ్యక్తులుగా మనం చేయగల సామర్థ్యాన్ని పరిమితం చేస్తుంది.

ఈ దృక్పథం లింగాన్ని సహజంగానే పరిగణిస్తుంది, అయితే ఇది మనమందరం పుట్టుకతో వచ్చిన మానవ స్వభావం యొక్క వాస్తవం. కానీ రచయిత వాదించారు, ఇది నిజం నుండి మరింత దూరం కాదు. ఆమె దృష్టిలో, అబ్చాయిలు మరియు బాలికలు సమానంగా పుడతారు, మరియు దాని “సమాజంలో సెక్స్ ఆధారంగా విభిన్నంగా ప్రవర్తించేలా కండిషన్ చేయడం ద్వారా పిల్లలపై లింగ పాత్రలను మోపింది. దాదాపు శిశువు జన్మించిన క్షణం నుండి సమాజం అబ్బాయిలు మరియు అమ్మాయిలను వేర్వేరుగా కండిషన్ చేయడం ప్రారంభిస్తుంది.

మేము వారికి భిన్నంగా దుస్తులు ధరిస్తాము, వారితో విభిన్నంగా మాట్లాడతాము, వాటిని భిన్నంగా నిర్వహిస్తాము మరియు వారు ఆడటానికి విభిన్నమైన, టైయోయ్లను ఎంచుకుంటాము. అబ్బాయిలకు సాధారణంగా రైళ్లు, కార్లు వంటి చురుకైన దొమ్మలు ఇస్తారు, అయితే అమ్మాయిలకు సాధారణంగా దొమ్మలు వంటి సంరక్షణ పనులకు సంబంధించిన దొమ్మలు ఇస్తారు. తన వద్ద ఆడటానికి దొమ్మలు ఉన్నాయనే కారణంతో ఒక తల్లి ఇక్కడ తన కుమార్తెకు దొమ్మ హెలికాప్టర్ను కొనడానికి నిరాకరించడాన్ని రచయిత ఒకసారి చూశారు.

పిల్లల బట్టలు మరియు దొమ్మలను లింగం ద్వారా వర్గీకరించాల్సిన అవసరం లేదు. వాటిని పరిమాణం, వయస్సు లేదా రకాన్ని బట్టి వర్గీకరించవచ్చు. సమాజం ఉత్పత్తులను లింగం వారీగా వర్గీకరిస్తుందనే వాస్తవం ఒక ఎంపిక, మరియు ఇది ముఖ్యంగా బాలికలకు హానికరమైన ఫలితాలను కలిగిస్తుందని ఆదిచి వాదించారు. ఇది హానికరం ఎందుకంటే ఇది పిల్లలను ముందే నిర్వచించిన అచ్చులలోకి మారుస్తుంది.

పిల్లలు ఇష్టపడే వాటిని కనుగొనడానికి మరియు ఆసక్తికరంగా అనిపించడానికి బదులుగా, పిల్లలు ఇష్టపడే వాటిని మరియు ఆసక్తికరంగా కనుగొనడానిక వారికి తెలియజేయబడుతుంది. ఇది వారి ఉత్సుకతను తగ్గిస్తుంది మరియు వారి అభివృద్ధిని అడ్డుకునే వారి అన్వేషణ రంగంలో ఏకపక్ష పరిమితులను నిర్దేశిస్తుంది. కాబట్టి, తమ కుమార్తెలను వ్యక్తులుగా పరిగణించమని అడిచీ తల్లిదండ్రులను వేడుకుంటున్నాడు.

ఆమె చెప్పినట్లుగా, “నువ్వు అమ్మాయివి కాబట్టి” ఎప్పుడూ దేనికీ కారణం కాకూడదు. కాబట్టి, ఆమె ఆడదలుచుకున్న దానితో ఆడుకోనివ్వండి, ఆమె కొనసాగించాలనుకునే దాన్ని కొనసాగించండి. చురుకుగా మరియు స్వతంత్రంగా ఉండటానికి ఆమెకు నేర్పండి, ఆమె విషయాలను ప్రయత్నించనివ్వండి, ఆమె ఉత్సుకతతో మునిగిపోండి.

Glossary:

Third Suggestion Questions and Answers & Summary by Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

OU Degree 6th Sem English Study Material

Accomplishments Poem Questions and Answers & Summary by Elizabeth Ralph Mertz

Accomplishments Poem Questions and Answers & Summary by Elizabeth Ralph Mertz

OU Degree 6th Sem English – Accomplishments Poem Questions and Answers & Summary

Comprehension I (Short Answer Questions)

Question 1.
Make a list of all the housework that women do In the poem.
Answer:
Women needs to take care of the toddlers. Providing them with food when the kids are hungry taking care of all the things when the kids mess up the toys she has to dean up all, Giving bath, dressing up the children, setting up the table, washing clothes, calming them when they fight with each other, separating all the linens with the socks. Moreover, working and thinking and managing their child’s development and growth. Above all she also does her studies and takes up her career.

Question 2.
Make a list of the professions or occupations of the men in the poem.
Answer:
Men in the poem and their professions. Aristotle is an Ancient Greek Philosopher, Milton is a poet, Dante was medieval Italian poet, Socrates a Greek Philosopher who is one of the founders of Western Philosophy, Shakeshpeare. famous English dramatest, Plato, ancient Greek philosopher. Edmund Burke, Irish Statesman, Aesop, Greek storyteller, Newton, English Scientest, Darwin, English Biologist, Holmes and Brandeis influential judges of the suprement Court of the united states in early 20th century.

Question 3.
What is the difference between the kinds of work that men and women do?
Answer:
There is a lot of difference between the kinds of work that men and women do. Men participate in the public sphere. They are consider as provider and protector to the family. Whereas women to all domestic household works, of both the home and family. There labour is unpaid and invisible.

Question 4.
Some of the names mentioned In the poem are of men who were great champions of the aights of the individual. Is the poem highlighting the ironic gap between what they preached and what they practised?
Answer:
Yes, of course the poem is highlighting the ironic gap between what the famous personalities mentioned in the poem about what they preached and what they practise, their success is due to a woman who took care of the home and all the members in the family.

Comprehension II (Essay Type Answer Questions)

Question 1.
Describe the central idea of the poem with appropriate examples.
Answer
The central idea of he poem ‘Accomplishment’ deals with the gender roles and highlights the differential expectations for mothers and fathers. The poem describes how men and women seen to operate in two distinct spheres while women are naturally expected to take care of the domestic sphere. The poet quotes so many examples where women are much greater doing all the household task, managing both the children and as well as husband. She juggles with two or more activities at the same time and even able to get advanced degrees taking up a career bringing laurels to her and the family.

Question 2.
Is the poem supporting or opposing a division of labour between men and women? Justify your answer.
Answer:
Yes, of course the poem is supporting a division of labour between men and women. It has been observed from ages that women does all the household works taking care of children, husband and many more She is really a multi tasker. Feeding the family, washing clothes, utensils, setting right the table and the things at home, hushing the tots above all thinking of her career women manges everything inspite of hectic domestic work. Men are only concerned about their work not like women. They protect the family and provides whatever is required. But it would be good if there will be equal share of work at home and work place between men and women.

Question 3.
Is the poem praising women who balance career and family or suggesting that men should share housework? Explain.
Answer:
The poem ‘Accomplishments praises women who balance career and family in a world where women are constantly being undermined and underestimated, we dont need to add on to that anymore by allowing ourselves to adopt that same mindset. it really appreciates women who manages house and work without giving anyone to complaint against her.

Yes, it is one way a suggestion to men who thinks that their success lies on their hard work alone rather they should realize behind a mans success there is a woman’s hand because if she will not take care of kids and family setting everything right, it is very hard for a man to go either way. In this regard, men should also help a women in household works because children are not only the responsibility of a women also as she begets the but men should also nurture them.

Question 4.
Since all the people named in the poem are historical figures, do you consider It to be a poem about the past? Discuss the contemporary relevance of the poem’s theme.
Answer:
In the poem ‘Accomplishments’ we find Elizabeth Ralph Mertz mentions about historical figures from the past like Aristotle, Milton, Dante, Shakespeare, Socrates, Plato, Edmund Burke, Homer Aesop, Newton, Darwin. Holmes and Brandies who have created their name in the world history by their works, teachings inventions etc.

Though the poem is all about the great personalities from the past it is related to the contemporary world. It has more relevance to the present. Earlier days women used to take care of family taking cure of all the household work and the overall development of their children. But as the days passed by we all know that we are in a hustle-bustle world where even women are educated and working helping the men financially too. Women became more self-reliant building their careers independently.

Accomplishments Poem Summary in English

Elizabeth Ralph Mertz is a professor at the University of Wisconsin Law School, where she teaches law courses. She is a leading linguistic and legal anthropologist and a pioneer in the field of law and language. While her early research focused on language, identity and politics in Cape Breton Island in Canada, her later research examines the language of US legal education. Her publications include The Language of Law School: Learning to “Think” Like a Lawyer (2007).

First published in Radcliffe Quarterly (1975), “Accomplishments” deals with gender roles and in a humorous manner highlights the differential expectations for mothers and fathers. The poem describes how men and women seem to operate in two distinct spheres; while women are ‘naturally’ expected to take care of the domestic sphere, men are as ‘naturally’ expected to participate in the public sphere.

Traditionally, a man’s role is seen as the provider and protector and a woman’s as the caretaker of both the home and the family. While men’s contribution to society is celebrated, women’s ‘invisible labour’ at home goes unacknowledged and of course, unpaid. While underlining how doubly difficult it is for women to succeed, the poem also implies that women’s success in the public sphere is noticed and remarked upon precisely because it is considered unusual.

The poem is all about the historical figures in the past whose names are mentioned and their work which gave them fame and name. It goes like this when Aristotle who is an ancient Greek Philosopher wrote his books, when Milton an English poet and intellectual wrote his epic poem ‘Paradise lost’, they were not busy with their little ones at the knee who troubled them to feed them as it is dinner time, Donte, medievel Italian poet famous for his epic poem.

‘The Divine Comedy’, which gives the description of the nine circles of hell and Shakespeare, an English playwright, poet and actor started to write a sonnet, their junior never interrupted them to put ketchup on their cake. Edmund Burke, Irish Statesman who spoke about revolutions, he did not spent his time washing his kids. He spent his time and strength to speak about revolutions. Whatever work they did, the credit goes to their better halves who did the all household work.

When socrates, Greek Photosopher famous for his Western Philosophy while teaching to youth, and Plato, Greek Philosopher who wrote the ‘Phaedo’ they did not clean the art and craft models of their children. When homer, an ancient Greek poet who wrote Tlliad’ or Aesop, Greek storyteller told his tale, they were not bothered about who will set the table at home. Their wives used to the bothered all the work.

When Newton, English Scientist who invented the calculus worked hard in the lab, he did not compare the whiteness of his laundry with the brand of laundry detergent. When Darwin, English Biologist famous for his theory evolution published in his book ‘On the origin of species’ (1859) he did not get food nor he hushed his tots saying them not to tease each other. It is always a women who was behind taking care of kids.

When Holmes and Brandies, influential judges of supreme court their wise judgements, they did not separate socks with he linens when the laundry was piled up to four feet high. It is all done by their wives. None of these great personalities mentioned here took care of their little ones when they were busy on their work. Then who used to do all the work for them. It is their better halves who would manage home, husband and children.

They are multitaskers helping child in the learning and their development and growth. How much greater the woman who patiently completes her higher education getting advanced degrees and take up a career. The whole praise and credit goes to this woman. If men gets the appreciation for their work how much a woman should get. Thus, the poem suggests the equal share of household work to be taken up by men as well. The poem implies women’s success in the public sphere is noticed and remarked upon precisely.

Accomplishments Poem Summary in Telugu

ఎలిజబెత్ రాల్ఫ్ మెర్ట్ యూనివర్సిటీ ఆఫ్ విస్కాన్సిన్ లా స్కూల్లో స్రొఫెసర్గా ఉన్నారు, అక్కడ ఆమె న్యాయ కోర్సులను దోధిస్తుంది. ఆమె ప్రముఖ భాషా మరియు చట్టపరమైన మానవ శాస్తవేత్త మరియు చట్టం మరియు భాషా రంగంలో మార్గదర్శకురాలు. కెనడాలోని కేప్ బ్రెటన్ ద్వీపంలో ఆమె ప్రారంథ పరిశోధన భాష, గుర్తింపు మరియు రాజకీయాలపై దృష్టి కేంద్రీకరించింది, ఆమె తర్వాత పరిశోధన US న్యాయ విద్య యొక్క భాషను పరిశీలిస్తుంది. ఆమె ప్రచురణలలో ది లాంగ్వేజ్ ఆఫ్ లా స్కూల్: లెర్నింగ్ టు “థింక్” లైక్ ఎ లాయర్ (2007) ఉన్నాయి.

రాడ్క్లిఫ్ త్రెమాసికం (1975)లో మొదట ప్రచురించబడిన, “సాధింపులు” రింగ పాత్రలతో వ్యవహరిస్తుంది మరియు హాస్యభరితమైన పద్ధతిలో తల్లులు మరియు తండ్రుల కోసం భేదాత్మక అంచనాలను హైలైట్ చేస్తుంది. ఈ పద్యం పురుషులు మరియు మహిళలు రెండు విభిన్న గోళాలలో ఎలా పని చేస్తారో వివరిస్తుంద్మి స్త్రీలు “సహజంగా’ దేశీయ రంగాన్ని జాగ్రత్తగా చూసుకోవాలని భావిస్తే, పరుషులు సహజంగా’ ప్రజా రంగంలో పాల్గొనాలని భావిస్తున్నారు.

సాంప్రదాయకంగా, ఒక వ్యక్తి యొక్క పాత్ర ప్రొవైడర్ మరియు ప్రొటెక్టర్గా మరియు ఒక మహిళ ఇల్లు మరియు కుటుంబం రెండిందికీ సంరక్షకునిగా పరిగణించబడుతుంది. సమాజానికి పురుషుల సహకారం జరుపుకుంటున్నప్పుడు, ఇంట్లో (స్తీల ‘అదృశ్య శ్రమ’ గుర్తించబడదు మరియు వాస్తవానికి చెల్లించబడదు. మహిళలు విజయం సాధించడం ఎంత రెడ్టింప కష్టమో అండర్లైన్ చేస్తూనే, పబ్లిక్ రంగంలో మహిళల విజయాన్ని అసాధారణంగా పరిగణించడం వల్ల ఖచ్చితంగా గమనించబడుతుందని మరియు వ్యాఖ్యానించబడుతుందని కవిత సూచిస్తుంది.

ఈ పద్యం గతంలో ఉన్న చారిత్రక వ్యక్తుల పేర్లను ప్రస్తావించింది మరియు వారికి కీర్తి మరియు పేరును అందించిన వారి కృషి గురించి. ప్రాచీన గ్రీకు తత్వవేత్త అయిన అరిస్టాటిల్ తన పుస్తకాలను వ్రాసినప్పుడు, ఇంగ్లీషు కవి మరియు మేధావిపై మిల్టన్ తన పురాణ కవిత ‘పారడైజ్ లాస్ట్’ రాసినప్పుడు, వారు తమ చిన్న పిల్లలతో మోకాలి వద్ద నిమగ్నమయ్యారు, వారికి ఆహారం ఇవ్వడానికి ఇబ్బంది పడ్డారు. ఇది విందు సమయం డోంటే, మధ్యస్థాయి ఇటాలియన్ కవి తన పురాణ కలానికి ప్రసిద్ధి చెందాడు.

ది డివిన్ కామెడీ’ నరకం యొక్క తొమ్మిది వృత్తాల వివరణను ఇస్తుంది మరియు ఆంగ్గ నాటక రచయిత, కవి మరియు నటుడు షేక్స్రియర్ ఒక సొనెట్ రాయడం ప్రారంభించాడు, హారి : సంర్ వారి కేక్పై కెచుప్ను ఉంచడానికి ఎప్పుడూ ఆటంకం కలిగించలేదు. ఎడ్ముండ్ బర్క్, విస్లవాల గురించి మాట్లాడిన ఐరిష్ స్టేట్స్మాన్, అతను తన పిల్లలను కడగడానికి తన సమయాన్ని వెచ్చించలేదు. విప్లవాల గురించి మాట్లాడేందుకు తన సమయాన్ని, శక్తిని వెచ్చించాడు.

సోక్రటీస్, గ్రీకు ఫోటోసోఫియర్ యువతకు దోధించేటప్పుడు పాశ్చాత్య తత్వశాస్తంలో ప్రసిద్ధి చెందాడు మరియు ప్లేటో, “ఫేడో” రాసిన గ్రీకు తత్వవేత్త, వారు తమ పిల్లల కళ మరియు క్రాఫ్ట్ నమూనాలను శుభ్రం చేయలేదు. ‘ఇలియడ్’ లేదా ఈసప్ రాసిన ప్రాచీన గ్రీకు కవి హోమర్, గ్రీకు కథకుడు తన కథను చెప్పినప్పుడు, ఇంట్లో ఎవరు గొట్టం వేస్తారనే దానిప్ఫై వారు విసుగు చెందలేదు.కాలిక్యులస్ను కనిపెట్టిన ఆంగ్ల శాస్తవేత్త న్యూటన్ ల్యాబ్లో కష్టపడి పనిచేసినప్పుడు, అతను తన లాండ్రీలోని తెల్లదనాన్ని లాండ్రీ డిటర్జెంట్ బ్రాండ్తో పోల్చలేదు.

డార్విన్, ఆంగ్ల జీవశాస్తజ్ఞుడు, జాతుల మూలం (1859)పై తన పస్తకంలో పరిణామం గురించి ప్రసిద్ది చెందినప్పుడు, అతనికి ఆహారం లభించలేదు లేదా ఒకరినాకరు ఆటపట్టించవద్దని చెప్పి తన టోట్లను మూసుకున్నాడు. హోమ్స్ మరియు బ్రాండీస్, సుప్రీం కోర్ట్ యొక్క ప్రభావవంతమైన న్యాయమూర్తులు వారి తెలివైన తీర్పులను చేసినప్పుడు, లాం[్రీ నాలుగు అడుగుల ఎత్తు వరకు పోగు చేయబడినప్పుడు వారు నారతో సాక్ణను వేరు చేయలేదు.

ఇక్కడ ప్రస్తావించబడిన ఈ గొప్ప వ్యక్తులు ఎవరూ తమ చిన్న పిల్లలను తమ పనిలో బిజీగా ఉన్నప్పుడు చూసుకోలేదు. అప్పుడు వారికి అన్ని పనులు ఎవరు చేసేవారు. ఇల్లు, భర్త మరియు పిల్లలను నిర్వహించడం వారి మంచి అర్ధభాగాల ప్రదర్శన. వారు పిల్లల అభ్యాసం మరియు వారి అభివృధ్ధి మరియు ఎడుగుదలలో సహాయపడే మల్టీ టాస్కర్లు.

ఇక్కడ ఉన్నత విద్యను పూర్తి చేసి ఉన్నత డిగ్రీలు పొంది వృత్తిని చేపట్టే స్త్రీ ఎంత గొప్పది. మొత్తం ప్రశంసలు మరియు క్రెిట్ ఈ మహిళకే చెందుతుంది. పురుషులు తమ పనికి ప్రశంసలు పొందినట్లయితే, స్తీ ఎంత పొందాలి. అందువల్ల, ఇంది పనిలో పురుషులు కూడా సమాన వాటా తీసుకోవాలని పద్యం సూచిస్తుంది. ఈ పద్యం పల్లిక్ రంగంలో మహిళల విజయాన్ని ఖచ్చితంగా గమనించి, వ్యాళ్లానించబడుతుందని సూచిస్తుంది.

Accomplishments – Elizabeth Ralph Mertz

When Aristotle wrote his books,
When Milton searched for rhyme.
Did they have toddlers at the knee
Requesting dinner time?

When Dante contemplated hell,
Or Shakespeare penned a sonnet,
Did Junior interrupt to say
His cake had ketchup on it?

When Socrates was teaching youth
And Plato wrote the Phaedo
Were they the ones to clean the mess
The children made with Play-Dob?

If Edmund Burke had had to work
On all his kids’ ablutions,
Would he have had the time and strength
To speak on Revolutions?

When Homer wrote his Iiliad
Or Aesop told a fable,
Were they concerned about whose turn
it was to set the table?

When Neon fussed with calculus
Or Labored in his lab
Did he compare the whiteness of
His laundry done with Fab?

Did food get bought when Darwin sought
The origin of the species;
Or did he have to hush the tots,
And tell them not to tease, please?

When Holmes and Brandeis donned their robes
And gave their wise opinions,
Was laundry piled up four feet high?
With socks mixed up with linens?

How much greater, then, the task
Of those who manage both,
Who juggle scholarship with child
Development and growth.
And how much greater is the praise
For those who persevere
And finish their advanced degrees
And take up a careen

Glossary:

  • Aristotle: ancient Greek philosopher who was taught by Plato
  • toddler: a young child who is just learning to walk
  • Dante: medieval Italian poet whose epic poem The Divine Comedy begins with a description of the nine circles of Hell
  • Socrates: Greek philosopher who is considered to be one of the founders of Western philosophy
  • Plato: ancient Greek philosopher; the reference here is to his work Phoedo (also known as On The Soul), which is Plato’s eulogy to his teacher Socrates
    Play-doh: soft modelling compound used by young children for art and craft activities
  • Edmund Burke: eighteenth-century Irish statesman; the reference here is to his political pamphlet
    Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790)
  • ablutions: the act of washing oneself
    Homer: ancient Greek poet considered to be the author of two great epics IiIiad and Odyssey
  • Aesop: Greek storyteller known for his collection of fables known as Aesop’s Fables
  • Newton: Sir Isaac Newton, seventeenth century English scientist who invented the calculus
  • Fab: popular American brand of laundry detergent
  • Darwin: Charles Robert Darwin, English biologist famous for his theory of evolution published in his book On the Origin of Species (1859)
  • hush: make someone quiet or silent
  • Holmes and Brandeis: Louis Dembitz Brandeis and Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr, influential judges of the Supreme Court of the United States in early twentieth century who were champions of the rights of the citizens and of free speech rights
  • juggle: to do two or more activities at the same time
  • scholarship: academic study, Learning
  • persevere: continue to do something in a determined way despite difficulties

OU Degree 6th Sem English Study Material

OU Degree 6th Sem English Unit 4 Vocabulary, Grammar

OU Degree 6th Sem English Unit 4 Vocabulary, Grammar

OU Degree 6th Sem English Unit 4 Vocabulary, Grammar

Vocabulary – One-Word Substitutes

One-word substitutes are words that can be used to replace a group of words or a full sentence without any loss of meaning. One-word substitutes are an essential feature of vocabulary building and they help us make our writing crisp and precise. Take a look at the following sentence:

  • He went to the shop to buy some paper, pens, files and pads.
    This can be rewritten as follows:
  • He went to the shop to buy some stationery.

Exercise I.

Match the descriptions in column I with their one-word substitutes in column II.

I Answer II
1. One who knows many languages d. a) Valetudinarian
2. One who dislikes or distrusts women i. b) Pessimist
3. One who loves books h. c) Altruist
4. One who is doubtful about the existence of god f. d) Polyglot
5. A person who doubts accepted opinions n. e) Feminist
6. One who is unaffected by joy or grief j. f) Agnostic
7. A person who believes that everything is motivated by selfishness m. g) Misanthrope
8. A person who expects the worst b. h) Bibliophile
9. One who hates or mistrusts humankind g. i) Misogynist
10. A person who supports women’s rights e. j) Stoic
11. A person who is overly anxious about his/her health a. k) Hypocrite
12. A person who is selfless and has concern for the welfare of others c. I) Maverick
13. A person who is 70-years old o. m) Cynic
14. A person of unorthodox or unconventional views l. n) Sceptic
15. A person who pretends to be what he/she is not k. o) Septuagenarian


Exercise II.

Match the descriptions in column I with their one-word substitutes in column II.

I Answer II
1. Open to more than one possible meaning or interpretation e. a) Reticent
2. Script or print that is impossible or hard to read g. b) Soporific
3. Not fit or qualified i. c) Fastidious
4. Not speaking freely or openly a. d) Congenital
5. Capable of being understood h. e) Ambiguous
6. Difficult or impossible to understand j. f) Congenial
Causing sleep or drowsiness b. g) Illegible
8. Excessively attentive to details c. h) Intelligible
9. A condition present from birth d. i) Ineligible
10. Pleasant and suited to one’s nature f. j) Incomprehensible


Grammar : Relative Clauses

Look at the following sentences from Rowling’s speech:

  • I might be tempted to envy people who can live that way.
  • It will not only be your proud families who celebrate your existence.

The underlined parts add descriptive information about the norms (people, families) that precede them. Known as ‘relative clauses’, these dependent clauses specify which people (or what kind of people) the speaker is referring to.

Now look at some more examples:

  • The film is about a girl who overcomes many obstacles in her life.
  • The woman, whom I met at a seminar, is an award-winning author.
  • Where is the book that I gave you in the morning?
  • Do you remember the man whose daughter broke several records?
  • She wore a dress that was too big for her.

The underlined parts are ‘relative clauses’ which give additional information about the thing or person being talked about. We can place a relative clause either in the middle or at the end of a sentence. Note the use of words such as who, whom, whose, which or that to introduce relative clauses. These words used in this context are relative pronouns. Relative Pronouns

Relative pronouns perform two functions:

  • Like other pronouns, they refer to a noun (a person or a thing) that has already been mentioned.
  • Also, they join two clauses together.
    E.g.:
  • The film is about a girl. The girl overcomes many obstacles in her life.
  • The film is about a girl who overcomes many obstacles in her life.

Use of Relative Pronouns Who, whom

Who and who(m) always refer to people. Who is used as the subject of the verb, whereas whom is used as the object of the verb in the relative clause. However, in modern English, it is common to use who in both subject and object positions. Whom is used only in formal and written English.

  • The woman who is talking to the tall man is the CEO.
  • The woman who(m) the tall man is talking to is the CEO.
  • Marie Curie, who discovered radium, was a Polish French woman.
  • The boy who(m) I saw on the roof fell down and broke his leg.

Whose

We use whose in relative clauses to describe ownership lpossession or to show that something belongs to or relates to someone or something. It usually refers to a person, thing or a group. Whose replaces his, her, its or their.

  • I have never seen a plant whose flowers change colour.
  • We have invited only those scholars whose work is relevant to the project.
  • This is the NGO whose performance was praised by the prime minister.
  • Polluted Ganga water is a major threat to people whose livelihoods depend on water.

Which

We use which for things, subject or object of the clause.

  • My grandfather has a camera which was manufactured in 1906.
  • Have you seen the book which I bought for my friend?
  • The college students did an experiment which showed the adulteration in milk.
  • The painting which I wanted to buy was not for sale.

That

We use that for persons and things, subject and object of the clause, and after a superlative. That can be used informally instead of who and which. That is much more common in American English.

  • I saw something that was round with many coloured feathers on it,
  • Where is the pen that I gave you in the morning?
  • Almost all the people that I knew in the office have retired.
  • This is the best book that I have read on the subject.

If the relative pronoun (whom), which, and that) is the object of the verb, it can be omitted without causing any change in the meaning of the sentence.

  • The supermarket (which) she likes to visit has closed down.
  • The officer (whom) I spoke to knows you very well.
  • The girl (that) I told you about got admission in the best medical college. However, when the pronoun is the subject of the sentence, it cannot be omitted from the sentence. Look at the following sentences. The relative pronouns are necessary and cannot be Left out without affecting the meaning.
  • The boys who work in our office are extremely hardworking and sincere.
  • She told me a story which was very interesting.
  • The thing that really shocked me was her indifference.

Relative Adverbs When, where, why

We use the relative adverbs when, where, why to link a relative clause with a connection of time, place and reason.

When
We use when after ‘time’ or time words such as ‘day’ or ‘year’.

  • Do you remember the day when you first entered college?
  • My favourite season is spring, when trees begin to grow new leaves.
  • 2016 was the year when demonetisation of Rs. 500 and Rs. 1000 notes was announced.
  • She cannot forget the year when she won several medals.

Where
We use where after ‘place’ or place words ‘room’, ‘street’, ‘town’, ‘country’, etc.

  • I want to see the hospital where I was born.
  • They showed me the place where they had translocated the huge banyan tree.
  • I visited the house where Rabindranath Tagore had spent his childhood.
  • I never liked the neighborhood where I grew up.

Why
We use why after ‘reason’.

  • Tell me (the reason) why you came late to the interview.
  • There are various reasons why we must complete the project on time.
  • The reason (why) I rang you is to invite you to a get-together at my place.
  • My friend tried to hide the reason why he was upset.

Types of Relative Clauses: Defining, Non-defining

Look at these two sentences containing relative clauses:

  • That’s the girl who won the first prize in the singing competition.
  • My nephew, who lives in New Delhi, is a civil engineer.
    What is the role of the relative clauses “who sang last” and “who lives in New Delhi” in the two sentences? In the first sentence, the relative clause adds essential information, while in the second, it adds extra information. Thus:
  • A defining relative clause provides essential information.
  • A non-defining relative clause supplies extra information.
  • A defining relative clause gives specific information that helps in identifying the person or thing that we are talking about.
  • A non-defining relative clause gives additional information about the person or thing that we are talking about. The information is not necessary to identity that person or thing.
  • A non-defining relative clause is usually separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma or commas.

We can know whether a relative clause is defining or non-defining by removing it from the sentence. If we remove a non-defining relative clause, the sentence still has the same meaning. If we remove a defining relative clause, the sentence has a different meaning or is incomplete.

If we remove the relative clause “who won the first prize in the singing competition”, the sentence is incomplete: “That’s the girl”. Therefore, the relative clause “who won the first prize in the singing competition” is essential information because it specifically defines which girl we are talking about. It is a defining relative clause.

On the other hand, if we remove the relative clause “who lives in New Delhi” the. sentence still has the same meaning: “My nephew is a civil engineer”. So, the relative clause “who lives in New Delhi” is extra information. It is a non-defining relative clause.

Exercise – I.

Read the following sentences which contain a relative clause. (They are all from the full speech of Rowling.) Underline the relative pronouns or adverbs and the nouns they replace. The first one has been done for you.

1. I saw photographs of those who had disappeared without trace.
2. The friends with whom I sat on graduation day have been my friends for life.
3. Ordinary people, whose personal well-being and security are assured, join together in huge numbers to save people they do not know and will never meet.
4. One of the many things I learned at the end of that Classics corridor down which I ventured at the age of 18.
5. At your age, in spite of a distinct lack of motivation at university, where I had spent far too long in the coffee bar writing stories, and far too little time at lectures, I had a knack for passing examinations.
6. I read hastily scribbled letters smuggled out of totalitarian regimes by men and women who were risking imprisonment to inform the outside world of what was happening to them.
7. This man, whose life had been shattered by cruelty, took my hand with exquisite courtesy and wished me future happiness.
8. They are my children’s godparents, the people to whom I’ve been able to turn in times of trouble.
9. I shall never forget the African torture victim, a young man no older than I was at the time, who had become mentally ill after all he had endured in his homeland.
10. I have one last hope for you, which is something that I already had at 21.
Answers:
1. those who
2. friends; whom
3. people, whose
4. Classics corridor; which
5. university, where
6. men and women who
7. man, whose
8. people to whom
9. torture victim, who
10. last hope, which

Exercise – II.

Add who, who(m), whose or which.

1. In the conference, I met a polyglot knew 13 languages.
2. He never finds shoes fit him well.
3. Why do you always ask questions are too complicated?
4. People are participating in the competition have to write a story.
5. You are exactly the person I wished to see.
6. Meet the proud mother daughter has won several medals.
7. What did you do with the money I gave you yesterday?
8. An atheist is a person does not believe in god.
9. I don’t remember the name of the man I spoke to yesterday.
10. Only children parents are illiterate study in this school.
Answers:
1. who
2. which
3. which
4. who
5. whom
6. whose
7. that/which
8. who
9. whom
10. whose

Exercise – III.

Add who, whose, when, where or why.

1. Do you know a restaurant we get good samosas?
2. A dentist is a person gums. is qualified to treat diseases that affect the teeth and
3. 1950 was the year India became a republic.
4. I still don’t know the reason I was punished.
5. Have you seen the artist’s paintings are extremely thought-provoking?
Answers:
1. where
2. who
3. when
4. why
5. whose

Exercise IV.

Combine the two sentences using who, whose, which/that, where or when.

1. You borrowed a novel from the library. Have you read it?
2. I met a dancer. He knows you.
3. We stayed at a hotel. We met an animal rights activist at the hotel.
4. She works in a company. The company’s work ethic is very good.
5. I still remember the day. Our first pet came home that day.
Answers:
1 which
2. whom
3. where
4. whose
5. when

Exercise V.

Correct the following sentences.

1. The hill station which we spent our vacation was very beautiful.
2. Do you know the name of the river who flows through the city?
3. The people which work in the stadium are very friendly.
4. That was the year where severe losses were incurred.
5. A soda maker is a machine who makes soda.
6. Is that the man whose is the author of the bestseller?
7. She recommended a book, the title of whom I have forgotten.
8. They are three brothers, all of which are graduates.
9. That’s the film where I saw when I was in college.
10. Is she the one, who mother is a famous dancer?
Answers:
1. where
2. which
3. who
4. when
5. which
6. who
7. which
8. whom
9. which
10. whose

OU Degree 6th Sem English Study Material

The Fringe Benefits of Failure, and the Importance of Imagination Questions and Answers & Summary by JK Rowling

The Fringe Benefits of Failure, and the Importance of Imagination Questions and Answers & Summary by JK Rowling

OU Degree 6th Sem English – The Fringe Benefits of Failure, and the Importance of Imagination Questions and Answers & Summary

Comprehension I (Short Answer Questions)

Question 1.
What was Rowling’s life like after graduation?
Answer:
J.K. Rowling is a British novelist. Seven years after graduating from university, she saw herself as a failure. Her husband left her, she had no house to live in, a daughter had to be taken care of She was on the roads homeless and jobless.

Question 2.
How does Rowling describe her failure?
Answer:
She failed on an epic scale. At her lowest ebb, she was unemployed, a single mother and in depression so severe that at times, she contemplated suicide. She suffered severe bouts of depression but she preserved.

Question 3.
How did Rowling respond to failure?
Answer:
Failure gave Rowling an inner security that she did not attain by passing examinations. It thought her things about herself. She discovered that she had a strong will and more discipline than she had suspected. She also found out that she had friends whose value was above the price of rubies.

Question 4.
According to Rowling, what would she not have found had she succeeded?
Answer:
Rowling discovered that she had a strong will, and more discipline than she had suspected. She found out that she had friends whose value was truly above the price of rubies.

Question 5.
What did failure teach Rowling?
Answer:
Failure gave her an inner security that she had never obtained by passing examinations it taught her many things that she could not have learned any other way. She discovered she had a strong will and more discipline than she had suspected.

Question 6.
What, according to Rowling, is the “true gift” of failure?
Answer:
Rowling says that knowledge is a true gift, more worth than any qualifications she had ever earned. It made her more wiser and stronger from the life’s setbacks. It helped her to live her life securely and taught her ability to survive.

Question 7.
According to Rowling, how do we define personal happiness?
Answer:
According to Rowling, personal happiness does not depend on what one requires in life or achieves in life. Neither does it depend on education or CM of a person. It depends on how one controls the difficulties one faces in life. One’s humble behaviour makes him or her happy wherever he or she goes.

Question 8.
What does Rowling mean by “what we achieve inwardly will change outer reality”?
Answer:
Rowling says that the qualities one possesses within oneself can be used to change the outer world. The man’s inner alignment helps the man to change his behaviour The speaker asks the students to know this fact and have valuable thoughts and ideas in their minds.

Question 9.
How and why are educated people responsible to the outside world?
Answer:
J.K. Rowling advised the graduates who were going to become independent citizens in the world, that they should know their status in the society. She advised them to raise their voice on behalf of those who have no voice. She suggested them to be with powerless and imagine themselves into the lives of those who are in need. Then not only your family members will be proud but thousands and millions of people be grateful to them.

Question 10.
According to Rowling, what do we need to change the world?
Answer:
The speaker says that we do not need magic to change the world, we carry all the power we need inside ourselves already as we have the power to imagine better.

Comprehension II (Essay Type Answer Questions)

Question 1.
Describe Rowling’s life after graduation.
Answer:
Rowling in her speech talks about her life before graduation and after graduation. In the first half of her life, she found it difficult to attain her goal and to satisfy her parents. She lead a very simple life in her former days owing to poverty.

Her parents could not afford to give her a rich atmosphere. She studied literature and classics much against the will of her parents. After seven years of her graduation, she lead a troublesome life, she was pushed into difficulties. She failed in everything including her married life. She was jobless and homeless. A daughter had to be taken care of She was on the roads.

Question 2.
What, according to Rowling, is failure and what are its benefits?
Answer:
According to Rowling, failure was not a fun but a part of life in an essential way. Failure made her to have determined mind to attain the goal she set for her. Only when there was a failure, one could look into the inner self and could bring out the capabilities.

The set backs would improve the knowledge of tackling adversity. Failure taught her to discover she has a strong will and more discipline than she had expected. She found her true friends. Set backs in life helped her to have the ability to survive in life. One should know oneself and one’s relationship with others. Failure as well as adversity in life made her strong.

Question 3.
Describe how Rowling faced failure and what she learnt from it.
Answer:
Rowling has experienced personal hardships, from financial struggle to depression, on her road to literary success. At her lowest ebb, she was unemployed, a single mother and in a depression so severe that at times she contemplated suicide.

Coupled with her dire financial situation, Rowling had to rely on welfare benefits to survive, Through her failure, she gained valuable knowledge about herself and her relationships, as well as the courage to face adversity head-on to turn unfortunate circumstance into success. It gave her inner security and had discovered a strong will and more discipline than she had suspected. She gained knowledge that was more wiser and stronger from her set backs.

Question 4.
Explain how failure can lead to self-knowledge and knowledge about others.
Answer:
The biggest lesson one can leam from J.K. Rowling is to keep trying, believing and acting on your dream. Self-knowledge is thought to differ from other sorts of knowledge in one’s own mental states – that is, of what one is feeling or thinking, or what one believes or desires.

Failure brings frustration and depression. Self knowledge is the key stone in the arc of success because success requires intentionally. It is difficult to be intentional if you don’t have a clear idea of the type of person you are, what we can do, how we feel, and what motivates us. In our failure we really get to know about people who care and love us in our adversities.

Question 5.
What is Rowling’s final message to people who enjoy privileges?
Answer:
Rowling stresses upon two important things – failure and imagination. She gave interested incidents from her life, how they were connected with their life She quotes a great Greek Philosopher’s speech, “What we achieve inwardly, will change out reality”, she states that Plutarch’s statement proved right. She tells the new graduates of Harvard that they are the privileged ones because they have the intelligence, capacity to work hard the education, unique status and responsibilities.

She calls them a ‘Super power’. She advises them to raise their voice on behalf of people who have no voice, the students were asked to image the education, unique status and responsibilities. She calls them a ‘super power’. She advises them to raise their voice on behalf of people who have no voice the students were asked to imagine into the lives of those who were underprivileged.

They had all the imagination needed to change the world in themselves only. The way they behaved and the way they protested would have an impact upon the society. Their intelligence, hard work and the education should be utilized for the good of the people around.

The Fringe Benefits of Failure, and the Importance of Imagination Poem Summary in English

Joanne Kathleen Rowling (born 1965), best known as JK Rowling, is a British novelist, screenwriter, Philanthropist and a film producer. She is the author of the best-selling fantasy series Harry Potter. Her life is a classic rags to riches story. She came from a humble economic background and lived on welfare of others.

She became an international sensations in 1999 with her first book ‘Harry potter and the Sorcerer’s stone’. She is one of the richest women, with an estimated wealth of 600 million. She is also one of Britain’s most benevolent celebrities, donating a large proportion of her fortune to charities.

The fringe benefits of failure and the importance of imagination (2015) is a speech delivered by JK Rowling at Harvard University on June 5, 2008, Recalling her own graduation ceremony and drawing on her life experiences, Rowling delivers an insightful speech. She encourages the students to redefine success and failure on their own terms.

She advises them not to be afraid of failure, and exhorts them to issue their privilege position to serve the needy. She emphasises that only through imagination can one feel the pain of others and create a better world for everyone. In this speech she tries to convey the message that failing can beneficial for an individual and that people should not be afraid to use their imagination.

Rowling begins the speech with a reflection on what went through her mind while writing the speech and how the process affected her. She reflects how upon graduating from university, it was not poverty that scared her, but failure: she saw it as the ultimate humiliation.

She describes how for her, failure was an immensely personal experience, and that for her, failure was a broken marriage, being unemployed, and raising a child by herself. It took her time to realise that it was only because of this state of failure that she had the freedom to write the novel of her dreams, which lead to her ultimate success, it was failure that led her to discover her resilience and ambition.

Failure gave the speaker an inner security. It taught her many things about herself. It helped her to discover that she had a strong will power and more discipline than she expected she also felt that failure made her understand what true friendship is She compares her friends to precious rubies. Imagination is a tool that can be used to understand other’s pain and suffering, and to empathise with them. It is our imagination that forms the basis of our power to enact positive change in the world.

She says that imagination influences everything we do, think about and create. It is the key to innovation. It is not only the human capacity to envision that which is not, but it is a power that enables one to empathise with others. According to her, many people prefer not to exercise imagination and would like to remain within their bounds of experience. Such people close their minds and heart to the suffering of others. She condemns this apathy.

At last she tells the graduates that they are privileged ones because they have the intelligence, capacity to work hard, the education, unique status and responsibilities. She calls them as ‘super power’ and advises them to raise their voice on behalf of people who have no voice. She tells them to use their superpower and make an impact beyond their borders.

She also tells them that she does not mind if they forget her words, but she asks them not to forget the words of Seneca, who said that life is like a tale and it does not matter how long it is but how good it is. Her final message is that the quality of our life should not be measured in years, but in the contributions we make to the world around us.

The Fringe Benefits of Failure, and the Importance of Imagination Poem Summary in Telugu

జోవాన్ కాథ్లీన్ రౌలింగ్ (జననం 1965), J.K. రౌలింగ్ అని పిలుస్తారు, ఒక బ్రిటిష్ నవలా రచయిత, స్క్రీన్ రైటర్, పరోపకారి మరియు చలనచిత్ర నిర్మాత. ఆమె బెస్ట్ సెల్లింగ్ ఫాంటసీ సిరీస్ హ్యారీ పోటర్ రచయిత. ఆమె జీవితం ఒక క్లాసిక్ రాగ్స్ టు రిచ్ స్టోరీ. ఆమె నిరాడంబరమైన ఆర్ఠిక నేపథ్యం నుండి వచ్చింది మరియు ఇతరుల సంక్షేమంపై జీవించింది. ఆమె 1999లో తన మొదది పుస్తకం ‘హ్యారీ పాటర్ అండ్ ది సోర్సెరర్స్ స్టోన్తో అంతర్జాతీయ సంచలనం అయ్యింది. ఆమె 600 మిలియన్ల సంపదతో అత్యంత సంపన్న మహిళల్లో ఒకటి. ఆమె బ్రిటన్ యొక్క అత్యంత దయగల సెలబ్రిటీలలో ఒకరు, ఆమె సంపదలో ఎక్కువ భాగాన్ని స్వచ్ఛంద సంస్థలకు విరాళంగా అందిస్తోంది.

ది ఫ్రింజ్ బెనిఫిట్స్ ఆఫ్ ఫెయిల్యూర్ అండ్ ది ఇంపార్టెన్స్ ఆఫ్ ఇమాజినేషన్ (2015) జూన్ 5, 2008న హార్వర్డ్ యానివర్శిటీలో JK రౌలింగ్ చేసిన ప్రసంగం, తన సొంత గ్రాడ్యుయేషన్ వేడుకను గుర్తుచేసుకుంటూ మరియు ఆమె జీవిత అనుభవాలను గీయడం ద్వారా, రాలింగ్ ఒక తెలివైన ప్రసంగం చేసింది. విజయం మరియు వైఫల్యాన్ని వారి స్వంత నిబంధనలపై పుర్నిర్వచించమని ఆమె విద్యార్థులను ప్రోత్సహిస్తుంది.

వైఫల్యానికి థయపడవర్దని ఆమె వారికి సలహా ఇస్తుంది మరియు అవసరమైన వారికి సేవ చేయడానికి వారి ప్రత్యేక హోదాను జారీ చేయమని వారిని ప్రోత్సహిస్తుంది. ఊహ ద్వారా మాత్రమే ఇతరుల బాధలను అనుభవించగలరని మరిభు ప్రతి ఒక్కరికీ మెరుగైన ప్రపంచాన్ని సృష్టించగలరని ఆమె నొక్కి చెప్పారు. ఈ ప్రసంగంలో ఆమె విఫలమవడం ఒక వ్యక్తికి ప్రయోజనకరంగా ఉంటుందని మరియు ప్రజలు తమ ఊహలను ఉపయోగించుకోవడానికి భయపడకూడదనే సందేశాన్ని తెలియజేయడానికి ప్రయత్నిస్తుంది.

రౌలింగ్ ప్రసంగాన్ని ప్రాసేటప్పుడు ఆమె మనస్సులో ఏమి జరిగిందో మరియు ఆ ప్రక్రియ ఆమెను ఎలా ప్రభావితం చేసింది అనే దాని గురించి ప్రతిబింబిస్తూ ప్రసంగాన్ని ప్రారంభించింది. యూనివర్శిటీ నుండి పట్టఫద్రుడయ్యాక, తనను భయపెట్టేది పేదరికం కాదు, వైఫల్లం అని ఆమె ప్రతిబింబిస్తుంది: ఆమె దానిని అంతిమ అవమానంగా చూసింది.

ఆమె తనకు, వైఫల్యం అపారమైన వ్యక్తిగత అనుభవం అని మరియు తనకు, వైఫల్యం విచ్చిన్నమైన విహాహం, నిరుద్యోగిగా మరియు తనంతట తానుగా బిడ్డను పెంచుకోవడం ఎలా అని ఆమె వివరిస్తుంది. ఈ వైఫల్ల స్థితి కారణంగానే ఆమె తన కలల నవలని ప్రాయగల స్వేచ్ఛను కలిగి ఉందని గ్రహించడానికి ఆమెకు సమయం పట్టింది, ఇది ఆమె అంతిమ విజయానికి దారితీసింది. వైఫల్యం ఆమె తన స్థితిస్థాపకత మరియు ఆశయాన్ని కనుగొభేల్ చేసింది.

వైఫల్యం స్పీకర్కు అంతర్గత భద్రతను. ఇచ్చింది. అది ఆమెకు తన గురించి చాలా విషయాలు నేర్పింది. ఆమెకు బలమైన సంకల్ప శక్తి ఉందని మరియు ఆమె ఊహించిన దానికంటే ఎక్కువ క్రమశిక్షణ ఉందని కనుగొనడంలో ఇది ఆమెకు సహాయపడింది, వైఫల్యం తనకు నిజమైన స్నేవాం ఏమిటో అర్థమయ్యేలా చేసిందని ఆమె భావించింది, ఆమె తన స్నేహితులను విలువైన కెంపులతో పోల్చింది

ఊహ అనేది ఇతరుల బాధలను మరియు బాధలను అర్థం చేసుకోవడానికి మరియు వారితో సానుభూతి చెందడానికి ఉపయోగపడే సాధనం. ప్రపంచంలో సానుకూల మార్పును అమలు చేయడానికి మన శక్తికి ఆధారం మన ఊహ. మనం చేసే, ఆలోచించే మరియు సృష్టించే ప్రతిదానిపై ఊహ ప్రభావం చూపుతుందని ఆమె చెప్పింది. ఇది ఆవిష్కరణకు కీలకం.

ఇది లేనిది ఉహహించగల మానవ సామర్థ్ే కాదు, ఇతరులతో సానుభూతి పొందేలా చేసే శక్తి. ఆమె ప్రకారం, చాలా మంది వ్యక్తులు కల్పనను ఉపయోగించకూడదని ఇష్టపడతారు మరియు వారి అనుభవ హద్దుల్లోనే ఉండాలని కోరుకుంటారు. అలాంటి వ్యక్తులు ఇతరుల బాధలకు తమ మనస్సును మరియు హ్లాదయాన్ని మూసివేస్తారు. ఈ ఉదాసీనతను ఆమె ఖండిస్తుంది.

చివరికి ఆమె గ్రాడ్యుయేట్లకు తెలివితేటలు, కష్టపడి పని చేసే సామర్థం, విద్య, ప్రత్యేక హోదా మరియు బాధ్యతలు ఉన్నందున వారు విశేషమైన వారని చెబుతుంది. ఆమె వారిని ‘సూపర్ పవర్’ అని పిలుస్తుంది మరియు వాయిస్ లేని వ్యక్తుల తరపున గొంతు పెంచమని వారికి సలహా ఇస్తుంది. ఆమె వారి సూపర్ పవర్ని ఉపయోగించమని మరియు వారి సరిహశ్యకు మించి ప్రభావం చూపమని చెబుతుంది.

తన మాటలను మరచిపోయినా తనకు అభ్యంతరం లేదని, అయితే జీవితం ఒక కథ లాంటిదని, ఎంత కాలం ఉన్నా అది ఎంత బాగుందని చెప్పిన సెనెకా మాటలను మరచిపోవద్దని ఆమె వారిని కోరుతుంది. ఆమె చివరి సందేశం ఏమిటంటే, మన జీవిత నాణ్యతను సంవత్సరాలలో కొలవకూడదు, కానీ మన చుట్టూ ఉన్న ప్రపంచానికి మనం చేసే సహకారం.

Glossary:

The Fringe Benefits of Failure, and the Importance of Imagination Questions and Answers & Summary by JK Rowling 1

OU Degree 6th Sem English Study Material

Television Poem Questions and Answers & Summary by Roald Dahl

Television Poem by Roald Dahl

OU Degree 6th Sem English – Television Poem Questions and Answers & Summary

Comprehension I (Short Answer Questions)

Question 1.
Who is the poet addressing in the poem? What is his advice to them?
Answer:
The Poet Roald Dahl is addressing to the parents. He advises them to never let their children watch television, or not to install it at all. He discusses the negative impact of television on young minds. He also asks them not to install T.V at their houses.

Question 2.
What did the poet find in every house he visited?
Answer:
In almost every house, the poet has observed that the children are sitting and staring at the television screens without doing any productive work.

Question 3.
How does the poet describe the television-viewing habit of children?
Answer:
The poet says that the children watch the television till their eyes pop out. They stare at it with so much attention that they almost get hyphotised by it.

Question 4.
How does the poet exaggerate children’s addiction to television?
Answer:
The poet is basically describing the behaviour of children while watching TV in their homes. They watch it with mouth wide open and eyes constantly on the screen. He tells exaggerating that they watch it to such an extent that one would think that their eye balls will come out.

Question 5.
From the parents’ point of view, in what way is the television ‘useful’?
Answer:
Roald Dahi describes the possible advantages for parents to let children watch TV. He further says that while watching television there is silence at home as children do not indulge in fights or kick each other they don’t disturb the mother from work at the kitchen. They are fully engaged a watching a that there will be no jumping from the window sills.

Question 6.
According to the poet, how does television affect the physical health of children?
Answer:
Dahl opines that by watching television, the brain becomes soft like cheese. Children now believe everything they watch or hear on T.V. They cannot find their own logic to analyse and interpret a thing. The power of thinking the thought process freezes and gets rusty.

Question 7.
What, according to the poet, would children do before the invention of television?
Answer:
The poet wants to support his advice with the experience of the children in the past. He makes a reference to books in the context that reading was one of the most popular past times of children before television made to way into their lives. He urges parents to reintroduce reading and exploring the world of books to their children.

Question 8.
What kind of books would children read in the past?
Answer:
Children used to read tales of dragons, gypsies, queens, whales, treasure islands and other. Some stories of the smugglers, pirates and such other stories have been read by the children in the past. They also would read the stories of ships, elephants and cannibals who eat the human flesh, sitting around the pot.

Question 9.
According to the poet, what should be installed in place of television and why?
Answer:
Dahl advises parents to remove television from the wall and in place of it a bookshelf should be installed. He is of the opinion that only reading books can replace the habit of watching TV. He tells the parents not to keep ‘dirty books’ on the book-shelves.

Question 10.
What would be the initial and eventual reaction of children to the removal of television?
Answer:
In the absence of television set, the children would initially be very hungry with their parents. Their initial reaction would be some dirty looks, screams, yells, bites and kicks, or sitting their parents with sticks, as the poet feels.

Question 11.
How does children’s perspective on television change after they discover books?
Answer:
Reading fairy tales and adventure stories certainly develops child’s creative ability as there is no ready image infront of him. The children will feel the need of having something to read. When they start reading, they will find great joy in that. They will also feel how they missed this joy the past because of that ridiculous machine’ collect television.

Question 12.
Why does the poet choose to write some lines in capita, letters? What does it suggest?
Answer:
The poet uses capital letters in certain sections of the passage as he wants to emphasize the ill-effects of television watching. They carry the main message of the poem which is all about watching too much television fills up the mind of children with useless facts.

Comprehension II (Essay Type Answer Questions)

Question 1.
What, according to the poet, is the impact of television on the minds of children?
Answer:
The poem Television’ is a way the poet ‘Roald Dahl’ has conveyed the harmful effects of installing a TV set at home. Dahl is critical of the television set and calls it an ‘idiotic thing’ out of aversion for it. He believes that it clogs and freezes the mind of young children. He advises parents never to install the ‘idiotic thing’ so as to save their children’s thinking and imagination from decaying.

He say it is also a monster that hypnotizes children and fills them with junk. Moreover, he believes that ability to think of new ideas diminishes when a child passively engages in watching television. Watching too much destroy’s children’s ability to create or understand the world of fantasy.

With their minds clogged and cluttered, they become dull and thus loll and slop and lounge about. Their brain becomes soft and their thinking power rusts and freezes He loses the capability to understand and respond to the environment around him.

Question 2.
What, according to the poet, is the effect of reading books on children?
Answer:
The habit of reading opens up one’s mind and makes them imaginative. When they have to imagine the visuals of their books on their own, the horizons of their thinking are bordered. They will spend most of their time reading interesting and informative books which will educate as well as entertain them. It will have a great effect on their understanding and knowledge.

Children will be well equipped with varied information about the world around them. The knowledge and other benefits that they gain from the pleasurable pastime of reading will make them thankful towards their parents. They will love their parents even more for saving them from the idiot box television and making them read wonderful books Reading books is a very good habit and brain exercise for children.

Question 3.
Compare and contrast the benefits and drawbacks of watching television and reading books.
Answer:
Television’ is one of Roald Dahl’s best-known poems. In this the poet criticizes children’s addiction to television. It highlights the negative impact of television on young minds and warns that too much television can kill the imagination of children.

He says that the television telecasts only rotter stuff and kills the imagination and rational thinking power which makes the children dull. They watch it hours together their brain changes like cheese and there physical inconvenience make them unhealthy individuals.

The power of thinking, the thought process freezes and gets rusty. The poet suggests to install a book shelf in the house. In contrast he proposes reading books as a healthier alternative to watching television and advises parents to wean their children away from television if they want their children to grow up with healthy minds. Reading books makes children to enjoy the stories including that of smugglers, pirates, cannibals etc. They will become more creature and will grow in imagination. Whereas watching TV will only all the imagination in the children.

Question 4.
The poet uses phrases such as “we’ve learned” and “we’ve watched”. What is the tone of the poem and how do such expressions contribute to it?
Answer:
The usage of phrases like ‘we’ve learned and ‘we’ve watched is used by the poet Roald Dahl in his poem ‘Television’. He used such phrases to involve the readers. He is addressing the parents of the children, who are addicted to watching the television, but the poet involves the readers as well as himself in the poem. The poem is an authentic proposal of he poet to children. He uses these phrases to show the authority there is a correction in the behaviour of the children to set them right.

Question 5.
To what extent do you agree with the poet’s views on the impact of television? Justify your answer.
Answer:
In the poem, he describes how a television affects the life of a child. He discusses the pros and cons of the subject. To a certain extent we can go with the views expressed by the poet about the children who are addicted to watching the television children, spending too much time in front of the television, is not good for their health they stare at the screen, do not move from the place.

They are hypnotised by it. It is not good for their mind. However, parents can permit children to watch good entertaining programmes and knowledgeable programmes. They can gain a lot of information by batching them parents can restrict their children’s time for watching the television. Every telecasted programme is not bad.

The poet has vividly described the horrors of watching a monster like, Junk television and given a simple solution to avoid it. He reminds the parents that before this nauseating machine was invented, the children used to only read and keep on reading books filled with fantasies and fairy tales. The new trends should be known to children only if they watch TV, we cannot fully agree with the poet that every programme is rotter or useless.

Question 6.
According to the poet, what gift do children have at a young age and how can parents nurture it?
Answer:
According to the poet, the best gifts the parents can give to their children are good books to read. As children are gifted with a fresh and fine imagination. They have to develop their innate powers. Reading good books will have a lot of impact on their young minds. But as the children sits before the TV screen, their brain becomes like cheese, the mind becomes rotten without any imaginative power.

They will become inactive. However, parents should be careful while selecting the books for children they should keep only good books and not ‘dirty books’ and should be some fantastic tales of smugglers, pirates etc. Parents are advised to keep the TV away. The innate qualities are to be nurtured.

Television Poem Summary in English

Roald Dahl (1916-90) was a British novelist, short-story writer, poet, screen writer, and wartime fighter of Norwegian descent. His books deal with fantasy and a make – believe world and are thrilling mixture of the grotesque and the comic ‘Charlie and the chocolate factory (1964), The BFG (1982) and Matilda (1988) are among his most popular children’s novels that have also been made into films.

The received several awards including the Edger Allan Be Awar (1954) world Fanstasy Award life Achievement (1983), Children’s author of the year Award (1990) and Millennium children’s Book Award (2000). The poem Television’ is one of the best poems written by the most prolific writer, well-known author of children, named Roald Dahl.

The poem highlights the negative impact of television on young minds and warns that too much television can kill the imagination of children. The author inspires and advises the children to read books instead of watching the television. Though the poem is about children, it is addressed to their parents.

As the mouthpiece of a number of people, the poet begins by saying that the parents should keep the children away from the television set. He makes this statement in a very aggressive way. He compares the television set to be as bad as an idiot box. Hence, the children should be kept away from the television set or may be the best part would be instead, never install the television sets in the house.

He says that almost every house he visited, the children are seen glued to the screen of the Television. They are so much lost in watching the shows that their mouths remain gaping and eyes fixed to the screen until they seem to be popping out of their sockets. They watch it in different postures while relaxing in some odd manner.

The children set and keep on staring at TV screen until they get fully lost in the visuals. They set fixedly at one place as if they were hyphotised by some power an they are so lost in the useless things shown on the television screen.

The parents feel and think that they have relief from their children as they would not jump from the window sill if they watch the TV. They would not fight, kick and hit. In the meantime, the mother will be able to prepare lunch and wash dishes in the sink.

The poet questions the parents of the bad effects which the television has on their children. He emphasis on the negative impact of it. He poet questions the parents of the bad effects which the television has on their children. He emphasis on the negative impact of it.

He say too much of watching it gradually stops the progress of their power of understanding and imagining things ground them. It fills their mind with so much of other stuff they hardly think and imagine freely on their own. Their mind becomes blocked to the natural world. They no more enjoy the world of fantasy and fairyland.

The poet asks the parents to recall how children had kept themselves entertained before television was invented. He reminds them of how children would take great interest in reading different kinds of books they would spend half of their lives in reading books which was the only source of entertainment in the past.

Before the invention of television they had great treasure of books in their rooms. The children used to read the books which were filled with tales of treasure islands, voyages, smugglers, pirates, ships, elephants and cannibals. They read tails about Mr. Tod, Squirrel Nulkin written by Beatrix Potter. Such stories were fascinating and would cast a spell on the minds of the small children.

Then the poet makes in earnest appeal to parents to throw away their television set and replace it with a bookshelf, ignoring all the objectives of their children. The poet feels that sooner or later the children will turn their minds to reading books to spend their time.

He shows his firm belief by assuming the parents that the children will not be able to stop reading books once they have started and then will wonder why they had ever liked watching television. In the end the children will thank their parents for introducing then to books.

Television Poem Summary in Telugu

రోల్డ్ డాల్ (1916-90) ఒక బ్రిటిష్ నవలా రచయిత, చిన్న కథా రచయిత, కవి, స్క్రీన్ రైటర్ మరియు నార్వేజియన్ సంతతికి చెందిన యుద్ధకాల పోరాట యోధుడు. అతని పసస్తకాలు ఫాంటసీ మరియు మేక్-బిలీడ్ వరల్డ్తో వ్యవహరిస్తాయి మరియు వింతైన మరియు కామిక్ ‘చార్లీ అండ్ ది చాక్లెట్ ఫ్యాక్టరీ (1964), ది BFG (1982) మరియు మటిల్డా (1988) యొక్క రిలిల్లింగ్ మిశశ్రమం అతని అత్యంత ప్రజాదరణ పొందిన పిల్లల నవలలలో ఒకటి. సినిమాలుగా కూడా రూపొందించారు. ఎడ్జర్ అలన్ బీ అవార్ (1954) వరల్డ్ ఫ్యాన్స్టసీ అవార్డ్ లైఫ్ అచీవ్మెంట్ (1983), చిట్డన్స్ రచయిత ఆఫ్ ది ఇయర్ అవార్డు (1990) మరియు మిలీనియం చిల్డ్స్స్ బుక్ అవార్డ్ (2000) వంటి అనేక అవార్డులను అందుకుంది.

‘టెలివిజన్’ అనే పద్యం అత్యంత ఫలవంతమైన రచయిత, ప్రసిద్ధ పిల్లల రచయిత, రోల్డ్ డాల్ రాసిన ఉత్తమ కవితలలో ఒకటి. ఈ పద్యం యువ మనస్సులపై టెలివిజన్ యొక్క ప్రతికూల ప్రభావాన్ని హైలైట్ చేస్తుంది మరియు చాలా టెలివిజన్ పిల్లల ఉహను చంపేస్తుందని హెచ్చరించింది. రచయిత పిల్లలు టెలివిజన్ చూడకుండా పుస్తకాలు చదవమని ప్రోత్సహించారు మరియు సలహా ఇస్తారు. పద్యం పిల్లల గురించి.అయినప్పటికీ, అది వారి తల్లిదండ్రులను ఉద్దేశించి ఉంటుంది.

ఎందరో ప్రజల మౌత్ పీస్ గా, తల్లిదండ్రులు పిల్లలను టెలివిజన్ సెట్ నుండి దూరంగా ఉంచాలని కవి ప్రారంభించాడు. చాలా దూకుడుగా ఈ ప్రకటన చేస్తున్నాడు. అతను టెలివిజన్ సెట్ను ఇడియట్ బాక్స్లా చెడుగా పోల్చాడు. అందువల్ల, పిల్లలను టెలివిజన్ సెట్ నుండి దూరంగా ఉంచాలి లేదా బదులుగా ఉత్తమమైన భాగం కావచ్చు, ఇంట్లో టెలివిజన్ సెట్లను ఎప్పుడూ ఇన్స్టాల్ చేయవద్దు.

తాను సందర్శించిన దాదాపు ప్రతి ఇంటికి, పిల్లలు టెలివిజన్ స్క్రీన్కి అతుక్కుపోయి కనిపిస్తారని చెప్పారు. ప్రదర్శనలను చూడటంలో వారు చాలా నష్టపోయారు, వారి నోళ్లు ఖాళీగా ఉంటాయి మరియు వారి సాకెట్ల నుండి బయటకు వచ్చే వరకు కళ్ళు తెరపైనే ఉంటాయి. వారు కొంత బేసి పద్ధతిలో విశ్రాంతి తీసుకుంటూ వివిధ భంగిమల్లో చూస్తారు.

పిల్లలు విజువల్స్లో పూర్తిగా దూరమయ్యే వరకు టీవీ స్క్రీన్పైనే చూస్తూ ఉంటారు. టెలివిజన్ స్క్రీన్పై చూపించే పనికిరాని విషయాలలో వారు కొంత శక్తితో హైఫోటైజ్ చేయబడినట్లుగా వారు ఒకే చోట స్థిరంగా ఉంటారు. పిల్లలు దీవీ చూస్తే కిదికీలోంచి దూకడం మానేయడం వల్ల తమకు ఉపశమనం ఉందని తల్లిదండ్రులు భావిస్తారు. వారు పోరాడరు, తన్నడం మరియు కొట్టరు.

ఈలోగా మధ్యాహ్న ధోజనం సిద్ధం చేసి సింక్లో గిన్నెలు కడుక్కోగలుగుతుంది అమ్మ. టెలివిజన్ వారి పిల్లలపై చూపే చెడు ప్రభావాల గురించి కవి తల్లిదండ్రులను ప్రశ్నిస్తాడు. అతను దాని ప్రతికూల ప్రభావాన్ని నాక్కి చెప్పాడు. టెలివిజన్ వారి పిల్లలపై చూపే చెడు ప్రభావాల గురించి అతను కవి తల్లిదండ్రులను ప్రశ్నిస్తాడు. అతను దాని ప్రతికూల ప్రభావాన్ని నాక్కి చెప్పాడు.

అతను దానిని ఎక్కువగా చూడటం వలన వాటిని అర్థం చేసుకునే మరియు ఉహించే శక్తి యొక్క పురోగతిని క్రమంగా ఆపివేస్తుంది. ఇది వారి మనస్సును వారు తమంతట తాముగా ఆలోచించని మరియు ఊహించని అనేక ఇతర అంశాలతో నింపుతుంది. వారి మనస్సు సహజ ప్రపంచానికి అడ్డుగా ఉంటుంది. వారు ఇకపై ఫాంటసీ మరియు ఫెయిరీల్యాండ్ ప్రపంచాన్ని ఆస్వాదించరు.

టెలివిజన్ కనిపెట్టబడక ముందు పిల్లలు తమును తాము ఎలా వినోదభరితంగా ఉంచుకున్నారో గుర్తుంచుకోవాలని కవి తల్లిదండ్రులను కోరతాడు. పిల్లలు వివిధ రకాల పుస్తకాలను చదవడానికి ఎంత ఆసక్తి చూపుతారో, వారు తమ జీవితంలో సగం పుస్తకాలను చదవడంలోనే గడిపేవారని, ఇది గతంలో వినోదానికి ఏకైక వనరుగా ఉందని అతను వారికి గుర్తు చేశాడు.

టెలివిజన్ ఆవిష్కరణకు ముందు వారి గదుల్లో పుస్తకాల గొప్ప నిధి ఉండేది. నిధి ద్వీపాలు, సముద్రయానాలు, స్ముగ్లర్లు, సముద్రపు దొంగలు, ఓడలు, ఏనుగులు మరియు నరమాంస భక్షకుల కథలతో నిండిన పుస్తకాలను పిల్లలు చదివేవారు. వారు బీట్రీక్స్ పాటర్ రాసిన మిస్టర్ టాడ్, స్వ్రిరెల్ నల్కిస్ గురించి టైల్స్ చదివారు. ఇటువంది కథలు మనోహరంగా ఉండేవి మరియు చిన్న పిల్లల మనస్సులలో మంత్రముగ్ధులను చేస్తాయి.

అప్పుడు కవి తమ పిల్లల లక్ష్మాలను విస్మరించి, వారి టెలివిజన్ సెట్ను విసిరివేసి, దానిని ప్రక్తకాల అరతో భర్తీ చేయమని తల్లిదండ్రులకు హృదయపూర్వకంగా విజ్ఞప్తి చేస్తాడు. ఇంకేముంది పిల్లలు తమ సమయాన్ని గడపడానికి పుస్తక పఠనం వైపు మళ్లిస్తారని కవి భావిస్తున్నాడు.

పిల్లలు పుస్తకాలు చదవడం ప్రారంభించిన తర్వాత చదవడం ఆపలేరని తల్లిదండ్రులను ఊహించడం ద్వారా అతను తన దృఢమైన నమ్మకాన్ని చూపుతాడు, ఆపై వారు టెలివిజన్ చూడటం ఎందుకు ఇష్టపడ్డారు అని ఆశ్చర్యపోతారు. చివరికి పిల్లలు తమ తల్లిదండ్రులకు పుస్తకాలను పరిచయం చేసినందుకు కృతజ్ఞత్లు తెలుపుతారు.

Television – Roald Dahl

The most important thing we’ve learned,
So far as children are concerned,
Is never, NEVER, NEVER let
Them near your television set—
Or better still, just don’t install
The idiotic thing at all.
In almost every house we’ve been,
We’ve watched them gaping at the screen.
They loll and slop and lounge about,
And stare until their eyes pop out.
(Last week in someone’s place we saw.
A dozen eyeballs on the floor.) ‘ .
They sit and stare and stare and sit
Until they’re hypnotised by it,
Until they’re absolutely drunk
With all that shocking ghastly junk.
Oh yes, we know it keeps them still,
They don’t climb out the window sill,
They never fight or kick or punch,
They leave you free to cook the lunch
And wash the dishes in the sink —
But did you ever stop to think,
To wonder just exactly what ’
This does to your beloved tot?
IT ROTS THE SENSE IN THE HEAD!
IT KILLS IMAGINATION DEAD!
IT CLOGS AND CLUTTERS UP THE MIND!
IT MAKES A CHILD SO DULL AND BLIND

HE CAN NO LONGER UNDERSTAND A FANTASY, A FAIRYLAND!
HIS BRAIN BECOMES AS SOFT AS CHEESE!
HIS POWERS OF THINKING RUST AND FREEZE!
HE CANNOT THINK-HE ONLY SEES!
“All right!” you’ll cry. “All right!” you’ll say,
“But if we take the set away,
What shall we do to entertain
Our darling children? Please explain!”
We’ll answer this by asking you,
“What used the darling ones to do?
How used they keep themselves contented
Before this monster was invented?”
Have you forgotten? Don’t you know?
We’ll say it very loud and slow:
THEY … USED … TO … READ!
They’d READ and READ, AND READ and READ, and then proceed
To READ some more. Great Scott! Gadzooks!
One half their lives was reading books!
The nursery shelves held books galore!
Books cluttered up the nursery floor!
And in the bedroom, by the bed,
More books were waiting to be read!
Such wondrous, fine, fantastic tales
Of dragons, gypsies, queens, and whales
And treasure isles, and distant shores
Where smugglers rowed with muffled oars,
And pirates wearing purple pants,
And sailing ships and elephants,
And cannibals crouching ’round the pot,
Stirring away at something hot.
(It smells so good, what can it be?
Good gracious, it’s Penelope.) 
The younger ones had Beatrix Potter
With Mr Tod, the dirty rotter,
And Squirrel JVutkin, Pigling Bland,
“And Mrs Tiggy-Winkle and —
Just How The Camel Got His Hump,
And How The Monkey Lost His Rump,
And Mr Toad, and bless my soul,
There’s Mr Rat and Mr Mole — 
Oh, books, what books they used to know,
Those children living long ago!
So please, oh please, we beg, we pray,

Go throw your TV set away,
And in its place you can install
A lovely bookshelf on the wall.
Then fill the shelves with lots of books,
Ignoring all the dirty looks,
The screams and yells the bites and kicks,
And children hitting you with sticks-
Fear not, because we promise you
That, in about a week or two
Of having nothing else to do,
They’ll now begin to feel the need
Of having something to read.
And once they start – oh boy, oh boy!
You watch the slowly growing joy
That fills their hearts. They grow so keen
They’ll wonder what they’d ever seen
In that ridiculous machine,
That nauseating, foul, unclean,
Repulsive television screen!
And later, each and every kid
Will love you more for what you did.

Glossary:

Television Poem Questions and Answers & Summary by Roald Dahl 1
Television Poem Questions and Answers & Summary by Roald Dahl 2

OU Degree 6th Sem English Study Material

OU Degree 5th Sem English Unit 3 Vocabulary, Grammar

OU Degree 5th Sem English Unit 3 Vocabulary, Grammar

OU Degree 5th Sem English Unit 3 Vocabulary, Grammar

Vocabulary: Technical Vocabulary (Film, Literature)

Question 1.
Define the terms.
i. Technical Vocabulary
ii. Film vocabulary
i. Technical Vocabulary : Technical vocabulary is a set of words and phrases used in a specific domain. Every discipline has its own specialised vocabulary and in this unit, we will learn the vocabulary that is helpful to write about films and books.

ii. Film vocabulary

  • Film genres (categories or kinds of films): action, adventure, animation film, avant-garde (or experimental) film, biopic (biographies), comedy, detective, docudrama (documentary drama), drama, historical, horror, musical, mythological, rom-com (romantic comedy), sd-fl (science fiction), sitcom (situational comedy), suspense, thriller, western.
  • Themes: coming of age, conflict, fate, friendship, justice, love, prodigal son, revenge, romance, sacrifice, transformation, vengeance.
  • Characters: antagonist, anti-hero, archetype, cardboard character, confidant, foil, narrator, protagonist, two-dimensional character, stereotype.

Exercise I

Match the explanation in column I with the word in column II.

OU Degree 5th Sem English Unit 3 Vocabulary, Grammar 2

Question 2.
Define literacy vocabulary.
Answer:
Some of the common words are story, plot, theme, subject, narration, point of view, setting, characters, narrative technique, action, climax, resolution and so on. Writing genres can be broadly divided into two categories: works of imagination written in verse or prose) and works of information (or instruction; generally written in prose); in other words, fiction and nonfiction, which can be subdivided into the following:

Fiction: Adventure, bildungsroman, comedy, crime, detective, epic, fable, fairytale, fantasy, gothic, graphic, historical, horror, mystery, parody, realistic, satire, science, suspense, tragedy, western and so on.

Nonfiction :
Autobiography, biography, criticism, diaries, essay, journal, letters, memoirs, report, self-help,testimonio, travelogue, treatise, and so on.

Exercise II

Fill in the blanks with suitable words from the box.

empirical setting hagiography hypothesis irony
omniscient parody opinion piece pastiche epic
personification persuasive point of view polemical verisimilitude

Question 1.
A biography that treats its subject with undue reverence:
Answer:
hagiography

Question 2.
A mode of writing that uses vigorous and combative language to defend or oppose someone or something:
Answer:
polemical

Question 3.
Writing based on of verifiable by observation and experience:
Answer:
empirical

Question 4.
An idea or theory that is not proven but that leads to further study or discussion:
Answer:
hypothesis

Question 5.
A work that imitates, makes fun of, or comments on an original work:
Answer:
parody

Question 6.
A narrator who knows the thoughts and feelings of all the characters in the story:
Answer:
omniscient

Question 7.
A writing style that attempts to convince the reader adopt a particular opinion:
Answer:
persuasive

Question 8.
An article in a newspaper or magazine that mainly reflects the author’s opinion about a particular issue:
Answer:
opinion piece

Question 9.
The quality of appearing to be true or real:
Answer:
verisimilitude

Question 10.
A piece of writing which contains a mixture of different styles:
Answer:
pastiche

Question 11.
The time and place of the action:
Answer:
setting

Question 12.
The use of words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning:
Answer:
irony

Question 13.
Type of figurative language in which a nonhuman subject is given human
characteristics:
Answer :
personification

Question 14.
A book that is long and contains a lot of action, usually dealing with a historical subject:
Answer:
epic

Question 15.
The perspective from which a story is told:
Answer:
point of view

Exercise III

Fill in the blanks with suitable words from the box.

linguistics author Why What estimates
fascinating tongue Will three living

This is a commendably short book of only 142 pages, but it is a …………………….. work which addresses …………………….. questions: …………………….. makes a global language? is English the leading candidate? ‘ it continue to hold that position? The …………………….. is a former professor of …………………….. at the University of Reading (England). He tells us that there are today around 6,000 …………………….. languages, but some suggest …………………….. that perhaps 80% will die out in the next century. In terms of mother …………………….. use, Spanish is spoken in more countries and is growing in use more rapidly than any other language.
Answer:
This is a commendably short book of only 142 pages, but it is a fascinating work which addresses three questions: What makes a global language? Why is English the leading candidate? Will it continue to hold that position? The author is a former professor of linguistics at the University of Reading (England). He tells us that there are today around 6,000 living languages, but some estimates suggest that perhaps 80% will die out in the next century. In terms of mother tongue use, Spanish is spoken in more countries and is growing in use more rapidly than any other language.

Grammer : Conditionals

On the basis of the degree of possibility, conditionals are divided into different types:
1. Zero conditional is used to talk about general truths and things that are always true. In zero conditional sentences, if can be replaced with when without changing the meaning. (“The lawn gets wet if/when it rains”). Simple present tense Is used in both clauses (gets-rains).

2. First conditional is used to talk about real and possible situations. It refers to a situation that is real and a possible condition and its probable result. In these sentences, the if clause is in the simple present (If the meeting is confirmed), and the main clause is in the simple future (you will be informed).

3. Second conditional is used to refer to a situation that is unreal or impossible. The sentences are not based on fact, and they refer to a hypothetical condition and its probable result. In these sentences, the ill clause uses the simple past (If I were the Prime Minister of India) and the main clause uses would + infinitive (I would make you my secretary). It is not important which clause comes first.

4. Third conditional sentences refer to the past and describe things that didn’t happen. Thus, they are used to refer to an imaginary past condition and its probable past result. In third conditional sentences, the f clause uses the past perfect (if you had tried), and the main clause uses the perfect conditional (You could have done it).

5. In Mixed conditional sentences, the time in the ‘if’ clause is not the same as the time in the main clause. They refer to an unreal past condition and its probable result in the present. In these sentences, the if clause uses the past perfect (If you hod worked), and the main clause uses woukt’could might + infinitive (you would have).

Exercise I.

Make zero and first conditional sentences.

Ex:  1. (you / heat Ice / it/melt)
Answer:
If you heat ice, it melts. (Zero conditional)

2. If he ________ (come). I (be) surprised.
Answer:
If he comes, I will be surprised. (First conditional)

1. (People / eat I too many sweets / they / become fat).
Answer:
If people eat too many sweets, they become fat.

2. (you / smoke / you / get cancer).
Answer:
If you smoke, you get cancer.

3. (children / play outdoors / they / have healthy bodies).
Answer:
If children play outdoors, they have healthy bodies.

4. (water/freeze / it / (be) very cold).
Answer:
Water freezes, if it is cold.

5. (everyone / feel / happy / the weather / (be) good).
Answer:
Everyone feels happy, if the weather is good.

6. I early if you
Answer:
I will come early if you want.

7. If they invited, they the meeting.
Answer:
If they are invited, they will attend the meeting.

8. She ………….. in the city, if she ………….. a job.
Answer:
She will stay in the city, if she finds a job.

9. If he ………….. this exam, he ………….. a promotion.
Answer:
If he passes this exam, he will get a promotion.

10. I ………….. a new dress, if I ………….. extra money.
Answer:
I will buy a new dress, if I have extra money.

Exercise II

Make second, third, and mixed conditional sentences.

Ex: If she ………………. (study) Mandarin, she ………………  (go) to China. (Third conditional)
Ans: If she had studied Mandarin, she would have gone to China.

1. If it _______ (win) an international award, the book _______ (sell) in thousands.(Second conditional)
If it won an international award, the book would sell in thousands.

2. We _______ (arrive) on time if you _______ (give) the right directions. (Third conditional).
We would have arrived on time, if you had given the right directions.

3. I _______ (ban) the school bag if I _______ (be) the education minister_______ (Second conditional).
I would ban the school bag, if I were the education minister.

4. If she _______ (prepare) well, she _______ (answer) all the questions. (Third conditional).
If she had prepared well, she would have answered all the questions.

5. If he _______ (invest) wisely, he _______ (live) happily. (Mixed conditional).
If he had invested wisely, he would be living happily.

6. If he _______ (driven) so rashly, the accident _______ (happen). (Third conditional).
If he hadn’t driven so rashly, the accident wouldn’t have happened.

7. “If wishes _______ (be) horses, beggars _______ (will) ride.” (Second conditional)
“If wishes horses, beggars would ride.”

8. If he _______ (to go) to college tomorrow, he _______ (so sad) today. (Mixed conditional)
If he didn’t have to go to college tomorrow, he wouldn’t be so sad today.

9. You _______ (find) the book if you _______ (look) carefully. (Third conditional)
You would have found the book, if you had looked carefully.

10. I _______ (happy) to help you if I _______ (not) in the middle of another meeting. (Mixed conditional)
I would have been happy to help you, if i was not in the middle of another meeting.

Exercise III.

Match the clauses to make conditional sentences.

I Answer II
1. If you had informed in advance j a. if you had prepared well.
2. If I find your key h b. we would have won the match.
3. The door opens f c. if I were you.
4. We will be late i d. We’ll have enough time.
5. You would have had no problem in the interview a e. you wouldn’t feel so awful.
6. I would inform the police c f. if you turn the knob.
7. If we meet at 9 am d g. the audience would understand you.
8. If he had hit a boundary b h. I will call you.
9. If you spoke louder g i. If we don’t hurry.
10. If you hadn’t eaten too much oily stuff e j. I would have kept the lunch ready.

 

OU Degree 5th Sem English Study Material

OU Degree 5th Sem English Film Review, Book Review

OU Degree 5th Sem English Unit 3 Vocabulary, Grammar

OU Degree 5th Sem English Film Review, Book Review

Exercise-1.

Question 1.
Describe the process of writing a film review.
Answer:
Film review, also known as movie review, is a journalistic review written for the general readers and is usually published in newspapers, magazines, or published in electronic mode, such as websites, blogs, etc. A good film review typically informs, describes, analyses, evaluates,- and advises.

Step – 1. It gives the readers an assessment of the view-worthiness of a film without giving away too much of its plot: Therefore,-writing film review is a process which requires a special skill to write a good review. The writing of film review involves the following steps:

Step – 2. Understand the genre to which the film belongs. Knowing the features of the genre helps us assess the success or failure of the film according to the criteria relevant to the genre. For instance, we cannot find fault with a fantasy film for not being realistic, nor can we complain about sentimentality in a melodrama.

Step – 3. Understand the purpose of a review. A film review is not merely a narration of the story or plot of the film. It is not entirely an expression of the reviewer’s own opinions. The primary purpose of a film review is to help the reader arrive at a fairly accurate estimate of the film’s nature, quality, and suitability.

Therefore, a good film review should strike a balance between information, inference, and interpretation. Understand the structure of a film review. Although reviewers bring their own character to the reviews they write, most film reviews follow a fairly well-defined structure.

Step 4 : Understand the target reader. Knowing who we are writing for and who is likely to read the review helps us choose the appropriate style and vocabulary. Depending on the target reader, the review can be written in a formal or informal style using vocabulary that is appropriate to that group.

Step 5 : Understand the medium. Although film reviews are generally associated with print media (newspapers and magazines), they have now spread to the electronic media and the cyberspace. Each media has its own style and requirements. Therefore, we have to customize our writing according the medium. What works in one medium may not work in another.

Question 2.
Explain the structure of a film review.
Answer:
Film review, also known as movie review, is a journalistic review written for the general readers and is usually published in newspapers, magazines, or published in electronic mode, such as websites, blogs, etc. A good film review typically informs, describes, analyses, evaluates, and advises.

It gives the readers an assessment of the view-worthiness of a film without giving away too much of its plot. Therefore, writing film review is a process which requires a special skill to write a good review. Although there is no fixed format of a film review, the following structure would be useful.

1. Title/Headline:
The title of the review should be short, catchy and it may suggest the reviewer’s assessment of the film. For example,
‘Tubelight’ fails to light up
‘Tiger’ roars again

2. Subhead/Deck:
This is a summary line that highlights the most noteworthy or interesting feature of the film. The subhead is written below the headline and above the review and is typographically distinct from the rest of the review. For example,
A watchable routine drama with its share of moments.
A predictable storyline embellished with hilarious dialogues.

3. Introduction:
The first paragraph, also known as the ‘lead paragraph’ or the ‘lead’, is the most crucial one. It sets the tune for the rest of the review and makes the reader want to read further. It gives the reader the overview of the film. It also conveys the reviewer’s overall assessment of the film. The overview may also include the background information about the film, its context, and the criteria used for evaluation.

4. Analysis:
The second paragraph should give the outline of the story. The subsequent paragraphs make an evaluation of the film in detail; the assessment of the plot, comments on the lead role and other important characters, screenplay, music, lyrics, dialogues, scenery, cinematography, etc. Reviewers may also cite specific examples in support of their assessment of a poignant scene, a melodious song, a lewd dialogue, etc.

5. Conclusion:
The conclusion will consist of two parts: a summary of the reviewer’s assessment and their advisory (a must-watch, watchable, ignore, etc.)
Example: Karthavyam – Exposes loopholes in the system

It is serious and thought provoking Release Date: March 16, 2018 Starring: Nayanthara, Ramachandran, Sunu Lakshmi Director: GopiNainar Producer: SharathMarar Music Director: Ghibran Editor: Ruben

Introduction:  Lady Superstar, Nayanthara’s critically acclaimed Tamil film Aramm has been dubbed in Telugu as Karthavyam. Touted to be a social drama, the film has hit the screens today. Let’s see whether it impresses us or not.

i. Plot:
Varshini (Nayanthara) is a sincere IAS officer who takes up the challenge of rescuing a four-year kid who falls into a bore well. In this process, Varshini also comes across some unnoticed and political issues which are causing problems in the rural areas where she is deployed. She decides to sort all these issues and the rest of the story is as to how she goes all out and saves the kid and also changes the system for good.

ii. Plus Points:
As expected, Nayanthara is a major plus to the film. She literally lived in her role of a sincere government official and acted with a lot of ease. Being a commercial heroine, Nayan should be appreciated for accepting this unique script which addresses a core issue. The film has a very realistic approach without any deviations.

The last ten minutes of the first half and interval episode are executed well. Especially, the pre-climax sequence and the rescue operation scenes are narrated on an intense note. All the family members, who were showcased as poor and backward citizens did a good job in their given crucial roles. The ending which hints us of a sequel with strong political content looks good.

iii. Minus Points:
Though the film is straight to the point and narrated on a convincing note, it lacks proper commercial elements which may not appeal to the regular audience. Those who expect some good entertainment and glamour from Nayanthara may get disappointed as the film runs on a serious note.

Nayanthara resigning from her reputed post at a crucial conflict point has not been addressed properly. If the director would have handled those episodes quite effectively, things w’ould have been a lot better.

iv. Technical Aspects:
Director GopiNainar shines in addressing a social issue and interlinking it with various burning problems in the rural areas. His intention and questioning the loopholes in the system will make us think for a while.

Music by Ghibran is apt for the film’s mood and his background score brings a lot of depth to proceedings. Production values for this limited budget film are good. Cinematography by Om Prakash is superb. As the core film happens in a remote village, he succeeded in bringing the rustic texture in every frame. Editing by Ruben is good as he kept the film’s run time short and crispy.

v. Conclusion : On the whole, Karthavyam addresses a burning issue in a very straight forward and gripping manner. Nayanthara’scommandable screen presence and director’s intention to expose loopholes in the system are impressive.

But the film clearly lacks the regular commercial elements and this might not go well with the regular entertainment-seeking audience. For all those who like films which are serious and thought provoking, this film is surely worth a watch this weekend for its unique storyline. Rating: 3/5.

Question 3.
Write a review of a film you have enjoyed watching.
Answer:
Baahubaii 2 – Salute to Rajamouli
It is a visual treat to the film lovers Release Date: April 28, 2017 Rating: 4/5
Director: S. S. Rajamouli
Producer: ShobuYarlagadda, Prasad Devineni Music Director: M. M. Keeravani
Starring: Prabhas, Anushka Shetty, Rana Daggubati, Tamannaah

i. Introduction:
Off late, where ever you go, there is only topic and that is how Baahubali 2 is going to be. Directed by the genius Rajamouli, the magnum opus has released in over 8000 screens all over today. Let’s see whether the film reaches our expectations or not.

ii. Plot:
As shown in the first part, Baahubali (Prabhas) is declared as the king of Mahishmati. As part of the kingdom’s ancestral ritual, the would-be king needs to visit the countryside to know what problems the people in his kingdom are facing. In this process, Baahubali visits a small kingdom called Kuntala and falls in love with its princess Devasena (Anushka).

He woos Devasena with his charm and brings her to Mahishmati. But to his shock, Baahubali’s mother, Shivagami (Ramya Krishna) changes her decision suddenly and announces Bhallaladeva (Rana^as the king. Why did Shivagami suddenly announce Bhallaladeva as the king? What is the back story behind her decision? and why did Kattappa kill Baahubali? To know answers to these questions, you need to watch the film on the big screen.

iii. Plus Points:
There are way too many things that impress you in Baahubali 2 but it is practically impossible to pen all of them down in this review. Let me start by talking about the gigantic scale of the film. It is like a never before and never again kind of scenario as Baahubali 2 is huge in every aspect. Every visual of the film is filled with surprises either in terms of graphics or the extravagant sets that have been put up. The costumes, drama showcased and performances are a first of its kind in Telugu films.

Credit should go to Rajamouli for taking Indian films to another level with his mind blowing story telling. The way he has induced a terrific conflict between the two brothers is the major asset of the film. Prabhas unleashes his beastly side in the second part and takes away your senses with his striking performance. From the first scene, his screen presence is top notch and the way he takes Bhallaladeva head on is just terrific.

A lot was said about Anushka’s weight but boy she looks top class in this film. Right from her traditional costumes to her mature look, she has pulled off both the roles with ease. She looks slim and quite beautiful throughout the film. Coming to Rana, it would not be exaggerating to say that Rana will never get such a magnanimous role in the future. What makes the film even more fiery and ghastly is his fabulous villainous avatar. No other actor apart from him could have played this role of a lifetime and Rana has done full justice to it.

Nassar and Satyaraj are excellent in their roles and especially Nasser, is the major highlight among the supporting cast. Ramya Krishna showcases superb emotions and brings a lot of depth to the film. The family emotions are yet another highlight of the film as they elevate the proceedings with a lot of depth. The fistfight between Rana and’ Prabhas is a feast to the eye.

iv. Minus Points:
A number of audiences might get disappointed with the way Rajamouli has answered why Katappa killed Baahubali. Even though, the twist gels well with the script, it might not meet the expectations of many. Once the twist is revealed, the film becomes a bit predictable.

The climax looks a bit rushed upon as things happen way too quickly. Tamanna is hardly seen in the film and only appears during the climax. There are certain areas in the film where pace gets slow and some unforced drama overtakes the proceedings. The romance between Prabhas and Anushka could have been edited out a bit to make things better.

v. Technical Aspects:
Baahubali 2 is one of the most technically efficient films made in India. If part one surprised you with its scale, then second part will leave you speechless with excellent visual effects and emotions. The kingdoms shown and sets created look top-notch on screen. The entire team of Makuta should be appreciated for taking the film to another level with their VFX work.

What takes Baahubali to its peak is the stunning background score of M.M. Keeravani. Even though his songs are not that effective as the first part, the way he elevates the proceedings with his score is impressive. Dialogues are decent and so were the lyrics. Costumes done for every character look top class. The weaponry created and props used look quite lethal. Coming to the director Rajamouli, he has surely done India and the film fraternity proud with Baahubali.

He has dreamt of something out of the box and has also succeeded in bringing life to India’s biggest motion picture. The way he has continued the story in the second part and made the drama even more intense is superb. There is more depth in the proceedings and every character has been given complete justification.

Every frame of Baahubali is his creation and you can’t but salute to the genius of this filmmaker who will be the next big thing in Indian cinema. At times, you just wonder how did he perceive all this in his mind and execute it in such a convincing manner. Technicians like him are rare and Telugu folks should be proud that our own director has gone ahead and proved that nothing is impossible.

vi. Conclusion
On the whole, Baahubali 2 is one film which leaves you speechless. Right from the word go, it has intense drama and action as every frame in the film is a visual wonder. Be it the heroic fights or the lavish war scenes, Rajamouli showcases some never before scenes in Indian film history. This film will be remembered and spoken about for years to come and break every possible record in the country.

The performances, drama and the lavish scale look jaw dropping and make this film a never before experience for every movie lover. Finally, just ignore the simple story line and do yourself a favour by faking your entire family to watch this magnum opus called Baahubali as wonders like these only happen very rarely. Rating: 4/5 ****

Question 4.
Write a review of a film you did not enjoy watching.
Answer:
Review: MLA – Politics mixed with some fun
It is a typical mass masala movie with not much attraction Release Date: March 23, 2018 Starring: Kalyan Ram, Kajal Aggarwal Director: Upendra Madhav Producer: Kiran Reddy Music Director: Mani Sharma Editor: Tammi Raju

i. Introduction
Out of the two films, Kalyan Ram is doing, a typical commercial entertainer called MLA has hit the screens today. Let’s see how it is.

ii. Plot
Kalyan (Kalyan Ram) is a happy-go-lucky youth who falls in love with Indu (Kajal). He proposes to her but Indu rejects him and sets off to her village. Kalyan follows her and requests Indu’s family for her hand. This is the time when Indu’s dad (Jaya Prakash Reddy) throws a challenge at Kalyan and asks him to become an MLA and then marry his daughter. Why did Indu’s dad ask Kalyan to become an MLA? Will Kalyan take up the challenge? And how does he become an MLA is the whole story of the Film.

iii. Plus Points
Kalyan Ram is perfect in the central character of MLA. He looks quite handsome and fit in his new look and carries his role sincerely. Kalyan Ram has improved a lot with his performance and mouthed all the mass dialogues with ease. All his confrontation scenes with Ravi Kishen have been executed well.
Kajal looks lovely as always and the whole story revolves around her.

Performance wise, she has nothing much to do but Kajal does her best in whatever she gets. Posani generates a few laughs here and there. The interval bang has been highlighted quite well and ends the first half on an interesting note. Certain emotions regarding the kids in the second half have been executed well.

iv. Minus Points
MLA is yet another routine commercial drama which has nothing new to offer. The same old storyline, hero challenging the villain and helping the village people have been showcased in many films to date.  The story of the film only kick starts during the interval point and till then the proceedings that are showcased are just below average. The way Kalyan Ram and his gang cheat Ajay looks a bit silly. More romance should have been added between Kajal and Kalyan Ram to make things better.

v. Technical Aspects
Production values of the film are pretty decent as the village set up and mass elements have been showcased well. Mani Sharma’s music is good as all the songs have been also shot well. The camerawork is top notch and so was the background score which elevated the mass scenes quite well. Editing is decent and so was the production design.

Coming to the director Upendra, he has done just an okay job with the film. He chooses a simple story and narrates it in an okayish manner. The only problem with his direction is that he has showcased the same old stuff which we have seen in many movies. The difference here is the energetic performance of Kalyan Ram.

vi. Conclusion
On the whole, MLA is a routine commercial entertainer with some good moments here and there. The confrontation scenes between Kalyan Ram and Ravi Kishan and some decent emotions are major assets. There is nothing new that this film showcases and all those who do not mind this factor and want to watch a typical mass masala movie, this film is for them. Others can look out for better options. Rating: 3/5 ***.

Book Review

Question 1.
Explain the difference between a book report and a book review?
Answer:
A book review is a balanced assessment of a book. It offers a brief description of the book’s key points and provides an evaluation of its strengths and weaknesses. A book review should not be confused with book reports. Book reports are short descriptions of books.

They summarize and explain the content of a book- its theme, plot, characters, and so on and give a personal opinion-whether they like it or not. Book reviews, on the other hand, are relatively longer. They analyze a book and give a reasoned argument about the strengths and weaknesses of a book. Book reviews provide the following:

  • Basic information about the book-about its title, its author, publisher, number of pages it contains, its price, etc.
  • A preview of the book-what it is about, what it is like, how it works, etc.
  • The reviewer’s response-whether or not the reviewer enjoyed it and for what reason.
  • The reviewer’s advice-whether the book is worth the time, efforts, and money the reader is likely to spend on it.

Question 2.
Describe the process of writing a book review.
Answer:
A book review is a balanced assessment of a book. It offers a brief description of the book’s key points and provides an evaluation of its strengths and weaknesses. Book reviews, are longer in length. They analyze a book and give a reasoned argument about the strengths and weaknesses of a book. Writing a book review is a process which requires constant practice to master. A book review could be written in four distinct steps:

Step 1: Before reading the book
Before you begin to read the book, think of the elements that could go into your review. For example, try to find out the answers for the following questions:

  • What is the title of the book? What meaning does it convey to you?
  • Who is the author and what else has she/he written?
  • What does the author usually write about? Politics, religion, social issues, etc.
  • What kind of a book is it? Is it a work of imagination or of practical utility?
  • What is the structure of the book? Is it divided into chapters? Do chapters have titles? Is there a preface, introduction, disclaimers, postface, appendix, etc.
  • What is the physical quality of the book? Its appearance, size, bulk, print, quality, etc.

Step 2: While Reading the Book
As you read the book, think of the components of the book which you want to focus in your proposed review. Generally, every book consists of two broad components: content and form. The answer to the question ‘what is the book about?’ is content, and the answer to the question ‘how is it done?’ is form. Content of the book can be divided into the following:

Theme: Theme is the abstract idea that a book explores-freedom, slavery, friendship, beauty, etc. It generally remains unstated and has to be inferred.

Subject: Subject is the concrete manifestation of the abstract idea. For example, to convey the abstract idea of nature’s beauty, the writer may write about flowers or rainbow, or the writer may write about a caged bird to convey the idea of slavery.

Similarly, form is abroad category, and it includes everything that a writer uses to transmit the content: language, style, narrative technique, point of view, setting, symbolism, imagery, and so on. Besides, the review writer uses the following means to convey the idea behind the text:

  • The main theme or chief argument of the book
  • The substantiation of the argument with proof or evidence
  • The important characters or events in the book
  • The language and style of the author
  • The tone and mood of the book-humorous, polemical, genial, informal, etc.
  • Any special feature of the book-illustrations, references to other sources of information

Step 3: As you write
After reading the book and forming an opinion about it, get down to writing about it. Go back to the notes you have made while reading the book and write the first draft of the review when the book is still fresh in your mind.

a. Begin with a short summary of the book without going into details of the book. In the same paragraph, try and contextualize (not evaluate) the book-by referring to other books of author or books by other writers on the subject.

b. After the first paragraph, which introduces the main plot or chief argument of the book, provide further details of the book-how the plot progresses, who the main characters are, how the argument is developed, what the supporting arguments are, etc.

c. After information about the book and discussion, provide your evaluation. Remember that purpose of the review is to give not merely a summary of the book, but also a critical evaluation. If the review is meant for a general readership, description and discussion may be given more space than evaluation. If the review is intended for a specialist readership, evaluation may be given preference over description.

Step 4: After you write
While you should write the first draft of the review as soon as you have read the book and formed an opinion about it, it is advisable to not send the review for publication immediately after writing it.

You should reread your review, preferably after a time gap, and see if you still want to say the same things about the book and in the same manner. While revising and finalizing the review, you should recheck the following:

  • Spelling, particularly of the title, names of the people and places, punctuation and grammar.
  • Factual information about the book, publisher, year of publication, etc.
  • Accuracy of your quotations from the book
  • Logic of your argument based on the evidence from the book or on the basis of your assumptions, opinions, and impressions.
  • Check whether language used is clear or opaque; the style straightforward or convoluted; and the tone cordial or prejudicial. Revision is not a waste of time, but is as important, if not more, as the writing itself. Revision helps you moderate some of the strong impressions you had earlier and thereby makes it more impartial and professional.

Question 3.
Explain the. structure of a book review.
Answer:
A book review is a balanced assessment of a book. It offers a brief description of the book’s key points and provides an evaluation of its strengths and weaknesses. Book reviews are long in length. They analyze a book and give a reasoned argument about the strengths and weaknesses of a book. Though there is no fixed blueprint or structure for writing review of a book. However, writing book review may broadly follow the following structure:

a. Headline/Title: The title of the review should be short and may suggest the reviewer’s assessment of the book. For example,

  • Shashi Tharoor’s Inglorious Empire: Atonement of the British
  • Chetan Bhagat’s Half Girlfriend: Old wine in an Old Bottle
  • Ramachandra Guha’s Makers of Modem India: Conformity as history

b. Opening Statement: A strong introduction is crucial to the success of a review. The lead paragraph should grab the attention of the readers and make them read the rest of the review. It should provide basic information about the book-title, author, publication details, genre, etc.; a short synopsis of the book; and the reviewer’s overall impression of it.

c. Discussion: Paragraphs following the lead, discuss the book further. The discussion may be spread over two to three paragraphs which form the body of the review. The discussion should cover the important aspects of book-central theme, supporting evidence, style of writing, etc. Relevant passages may be quoted to illustrate the points being made.

d. Assessment: Evaluation of the book should be based on its merits and demerits and not on personal opinions. Praise or criticism of the book should be substantiated by evidence from the book. While unsupported praise is unconvincing, unsupported criticism betrays professionalism and is prejudice. While assessing a book, it is important to remember that the review is of the book that the author has written and not the book the reviewer wishes the author had written.

e. Conclusion: The final paragraph is as important as the lead paragraph. Readers are likely to remember and be influenced by the reviewer’s comments in the last paragraph. The concluding paragraph contains the reviewer’s final comments on the success or failure.

Question 4.
Write a review of a book of fiction (i.e., a book with a story).
Answer:
Bibliography : The Blue Umbrella Author : Ruskin Bond
Publication : Rupa Cover Art : Prasun Mazumdar
It was a Saturday noon when I and my son sat together after lunch. We were discussing the past week’s events at his school. Meanwhile, he insisted on reading a book as it’s been a long time, we read anything. And here is our review of the blue umbrella by Ruskin Bond.

i. Introduction:
The blue umbrella is a children’s novella written by the legendary author Ruskin Bond. The fiction story is set in the hill village of Garhwal. The story revolves around the heroic acts of ordinary characters. A short entertaining story about the ordinary life of people in hills. It’s a reader’s delight to read, how a simple urban stylish blue umbrella makes its owner popular and envied among others in the village.

ii. Plot:
A little girl Binya, loves herding her cows in the Himalayas. While roaming in the hills, she saw a beautiful blue umbrella. The umbrella belonged to some tourists. Binya was desperate to get the beautiful umbrella. She exchanged her lucky charm pendant for an umbrella. Her proud ownership of the attractive umbrella caused her to earn the jealousy of some villagers.

Especially of the shopkeeper Ram Bharosa who wanted to own the best umbrella in the village by hook or crook. The story is engaging and interesting. No, I am not going to reveal if the shopkeeper was able to get the umbrella or not. Read the book and find about it yourself. Let kids enjoy reading fiction.

iii. Characters:
Binya is the main character of the story. She is a simple mountain girl with fair skin. She loved going out with cows. She is brave and kind. The other characters are Vijay (Binya’s brother), Ram Bharosa (the shopkeeper), tourists and a little boy. All the characters have their own quality of being shrewd, kind, clever, and brave. There is also a character who does the wrong action of stealing. And kids, you should not do such actions ever in life.

iv. My Favourite:
I liked the simple writing style of the author. The beautiful village life of Binya roaming in the hillside.Her acts of bravery, kindness and her fondness for the umbrella. The kids tackling the daily chores and helping their mother. The dramatic scenarios and beautification of Garhwal Hills are all well-crafted. Children will learn to be kind, and empathetic with this fiction work.

v. Recommendation:
A good read for youngsters in the age group 8 to 10. Though it is only a one time read, yet a good option to engage your kids. The sketch illustrations are not very appealing to children.

Question 5.
Write a review of a book of non-fiction (i.e., a book with an argument).
Answer:
Title of Review of the Book: Playing It My Way: Inspiring Autobiography Title and Author: Playing It My Way and Bona Mujumdar and Sachin Tendulkar Pages: 486 Price: Rs. 899
Publisher: Hodder and Stoughton
Rating: 3/5 Lead Paragraph

When it was first announced that Sachin Tendulkar was writing an autobiography, the initial feeling was of euphoria. Who would not like to get personal insights from the most popular Indian cricketer ever? Sachin Tendulkar is not merely a person or player: he has become an icon, even an institution. A peek into the heart and mind of such an institution is always a hugely welcome proposition.

However, on second thoughts, the conscientious cricket fan would have realized that the autobiography could not be expected to shake the foundations of world cricket. Tendulkar, who was a reticent man during his career both on and off the pitch, preferring to duck controversy rather than confront it, could not be expected to suddenly throw caution to the winds-. This would not be an image-altering exercise in exposes.

Synopsis of the Book:
This impression was sought to be challenged by the PR exercises Tendulkar and his team carried out before the release of the book. They kept feeding interesting tidbits about the book to the media. Greg Chappell circa 2007 still had the potential to create controversy, and it did. There was a rallying cry from India’s seniors, now happily retired but once hugely disgruntled with Chappell. There were photo ops, television appearances and posturing.

Anyone who has read the book now would know that most of the juicy bits had already been told before the book released. After the storm was over, what we received was rather dull weather. In the form of a mediocre, run-of-the-mill narrative of Tendulkar’s career which is exactly how ‘Playing It My Way’ can be described in stark terms. It would be fitting to describe the book as a chronological recollection of Tendulkar’s career rather than an insight into the genius of Sachin Tendulkar. For a hardcore Indian cricket fan, there is not much to savour.

Details of the Plot:
Every cricket fanatic in India for example, knows that Tendulkar made his debut against a hostile Pakistan attack in 1989. Most also know that he was struck on the mouth by a Waqar delivery in one of the Tests that followed, bled profusely and continued to bat on.

But these pieces of information would at least be of interest to a casual fan, or a very young fan who has fed off the Dhonis and Rainas of the world. It’s the even more mundane bits which challenge a cricket fan’s intelligence. For at the book’s core is a tepid description of the events of every important match and series in Tendulkar’s career.

That kind of information could easily be obtained online. Few really want to be reminded for example, that Tendulkar scored a hundred on a minefield in Perth in 1992. They already know that. The book does not attempt to scratch beneath the surface to reveal the mental and psychological aspects of that great innings, or of most other innings.

Consequently, there is little in the book that could spark fan interest. One aspect of an interesting sports autobiography is the politics behind the scenes, or behind the curtains of power. We get none of this in the book. The 1990s were tumultuous times for Indian cricket off the pitch, and so were the early 2000s.

But Playing It My Way does not even attempt to venture close.Another aspect of a good sports autobiography is an insight into the workings of an art. In the case of Tendulkar, this means insights into the science of batting. While the master batsman does give us some information in this regard, it never becomes the focal point of any chapter.

Nor do we get much in the way of captain-coach relationships, captain-team mate relationships, board-captain relationships, or any kind of cricketing relationships at all. Sachin only consents to blow the cover off his secretive relationship in the early 1990s with his eventual wife Anjali.

The chapter, titled ‘Anjali’, becomes the best chapter of the book simply because Indians love romantic tales (though it has to be conceded that Sachin-Anjali was one of the more interesting romantic stories). This says a lot about the quality of the book itself – if romance is the best part of a megastar sportsman’s autobiography, the manuscript cannot be held in high regard.

Some autobiographies flop because fan expectations are too high. Some flop despite being full of spicy controversies. Tendulkar’s book has outsold most others in India already and yet it a major let down, simply because the author did not TRY to make it insightful which is extremely unfortunate. Eventually, you get the feeling that Tendulkar holds himself back nearly as much in’ his autobiography as he did during his high-profile, extremely successful cricketing career.

SRT merely feeds the fans with things they would like to discuss, and that too without scraping the surface much. Between the chronological drivel, the sub-headings merely speak about issues widely discussed and debated by media and fans. The book is not so much a revelation of Sachin Tendulkar the man as it as an attempt to give the casual fan a reason to discuss Tendulkar’s career.

Nor can it be said that the book is a masterpiece in linguistic expression. The language is plain, even cliched at times. One also gets the impression that the book was written with haste, for there are several statistical inaccuracies.

But the sad truth is that good autobiographies can never be written with haste, for an autobiography is meant to be a revelation of the person behind the image. Another disappointing aspect of Playing It My Way is the lack of first-person insights. Events are described almost dispassionately, like an observer in third person. There is also no attempt to bring in diverse perspectives on any single subject, to make the ardent fan think.

Why then, was this autobiography written? It ends up being a brilliant opportunity that has been superbly wasted. There can be no argument that Tendulkar needed the limelight – he still has it more than some of the players in the current Indian team. Nor is he a struggling ex-cricketer looking to improve his finances, and he is unlikely to ever go down that path. Without the spice of controversy, the force of cricketing intellect or eloquence of language, Playing It My Way is just another ordinary book.

Assessment:
There are a few positives though. Despite the mundaneness, an unbiased fan would come to appreciate and respect Tendulkar the cricketer after reading Playing It My Way. It is simply amazing that a man could play cricket at near-peak level for over a decade while in constant pain. The book succeeds in bringing out the passion for cricket that the master batsman possessed.

It also nullifies half-baked theories that Tendulkar, unlike Dravid, Laxman or Kumble, relied more on genius than on hard work to achieve success. Incredibly, one can say that Tendulkar’s performance over the second half of his career remained underappreciated because we knew little of his physical and mental struggles.

Conclusion:
In conclusion, the book succeeds in elevating Tendulkar the batsman, but fails in revealing Tendulkar the person. It is a decent one-time read but would never rank anywhere amongst the greatest sporting autobiographies ever written.

OU Degree 5th Sem English Study Material