OU Degree 1st Sem English Unit 1 Vocabulary, Grammar

OU Degree 1st Sem English Unit 1 Vocabulary, Grammar

Vocabulary : Word Roots

Word Roots: Most words can be broken down into smaller units that have some meaning of their own. For example, the English word ‘unable’ can be broken down into two smaller units: un (meaning ‘not’) + able (meaning ‘can be done’).

The smallest meaningful unit that forms the main part of a word is called its root. Words grow from their roots. In the above example, the root of the word ‘unable’ is able. From the word root able, words such as ‘enable’ (en + able), ‘portable’ (port + able), ‘disability’ (dis + able + ity), and many others can be formed.

The roots for many English words were borrowed from Greek and Latin words. For example, the word ‘biology’ is composed of two simple roots – bio (‘life’) + logy (‘science’ or ‘study’) – that have been derived from Greek words. The resulting English word biology is therefore the ‘study of life’.

Some roots can be independent words by themselves in English (bio, graph), while many others are not (logy, chrono). Roots combine with each other in various ways to form standalone English words: biology, biography, chronology, chronograph’
OU Degree 1st Sem English Unit 1 Vocabulary, Grammar 3

Exercise 1.

Identify the roots of each of the following words.
1. Genetic – gene
2. Paragraph – graph
3. Predict – dict
4. Uncountable – count
5. Airport – port
6. Dictator – dict
7. Admit – mit
8. Photon – photo
9. Telemetry – tele

Exercise 2.

Write down at least two words formed using each of the given roots. The meanings of the roots are given in brackets.

1. Phones (sound) – telephone, phonology
2. Pater (father) – paternal, paternity
3. Voc (to call) – vocabulary, invocation
4. Temp (time) – temporal, contemporary
5. Mono (one) – monopoly, monotony
6. Act (to move or do) – activate, proactive
7. Alter (other) – alternative, alteration
8. Aqua (water) – aquatic, aquarium
9. Multi (many) – multitude, multi-purpose
10. Therm(heat) – thermometer, thermostat
11. Cent (hundred) – century, centenary
12. Astra (star) – astronomy, astrophysics

Exercise 3.

Pick out five words from the poem ‘in the Bazaars of Hyderabad’ or from the story
‘The Eyes are Not Here.’ Transform each of the words you have chosen into a different word by changing a root. For example, word: tele (meaning ‘far’) + phone (meaning ‘sound’).

Change the root phone to pathy (meaning ‘feeling’). New word formed: telepathy.
1. Disability – dis+able+ity — New word formed: Inability
2. Chessmen – chess+men — New word formed: chess master
3. Wristlet – wrist+let — New word formed: bracelet
4. Displayed – dis+play+ed — New word formed: discovered
5. Sensitive – sense +true — New word formed: senseless

Grammar: Nouns

Noun: Noun are the names of persons, places, things, actions and concepts. These are called naming words, or more spcifically, nonuns.

Types of Nouns
Nouns may be classified in many different ways. In this unit, we will look at to ways of categorising them: as proper and common nouns, and as countable and uncountable nouns.

i. Proper Noun: A proper noun is the name of a particular person, place or thing. They are always written with a capital letter. For example, Manmohan, Sri Lanka, Osmania University, Nobel Prize, Deccan Chronicle, TajMahal, Mars, Kannada, Hou.

ii. Common Nouns: Common nouns are all other nouns that are not categorised as proper nouns, They may refer to concrete objects, abstract ideas or actions. For example, person, country, institution, award, newspaper, mausoleum, planet, festival, independence, flattery.

iii. Countable nouns: A useful way of categorising nouns is making a distinction between countable and uncountable nouns.

iv. Uncountable nouns: Countable nouns consist of things which can be recognised and counted as individual items. They usually have a singular and a plural form. For example, book, books; mouse, mice; person, people. Uncountable nouns consist of substances (such as materials, liquid, powder) not usually considered as their individual components. For example, salt, cotton, sand. They may refer to a category of things (for example, furniture, information, baggage), or to abstract concepts (for example, youth, danger, beauty).

Countable nouns Uncountable nouns
‘A or an can be used in front of them: them: a person, an ant. A’ or ‘an are usually not used in front of milk, cotton. (When a or an is placed before an
uncountable noun, its meaning usually changes: ‘paper = material, but ‘a paper = a newspaper.)
Have a plural form: ant → ants. Do not have a plural form.
Numbers can be used with them: two people, four ants. Numbers are usually not used in front of them: a little milk, some cotton.
To quantify, we ask ‘How many?’ To quantify, we ask How much?

Uncountable nouns can be made countable by adding a suitable countable noun + of. For example, a few bottles of milk; a spoon of salt; five kilos of rice; several bowls of soup.

Exercise 1.

Identify the nouns in the following passages. Also say whether each noun is a proper or a common noun, and if they are countable or uncountable.

Question 1.
Our sun is, in fact, a rather unimportant member of a huge system of stars, or galaxy, consisting of at least a hundred thousand million stars. We can see a part of this galaxy stretching across the sky as a pale white band of stars called the Milky Way. In India it is sometimes called the Heavenly Ganga.
sun- proper noun & uncountablenoun
member-common noun & countablenoun
system-common noun & countablenoun
stars-common noun & (un)countablenoun
galaxy-common noun & (un)countablenoun
part-common noun & countablenoun
sky-proper noun & uncountable noun
band-common noun & countablenoun
Milky Way-proper noun & uncountable noun
India-proper noun & uncountable noun
Heavenly Ganga-proper noun & uncountable noun

Question 2.
‘In the Bazaars of Hyderabad’ is a popular lyric by Sarojini Naidu which romanticises the common man’s pursuits and aspirations. The setting here is the crowded marketplace of Hyderabad, and the poem seems to be a dialogue between the customers and the vendors of the bazaars. The poem invokes the rich colours, smells, sounds, and tastes of a rich and varied cultural milieu. The poem also has a political backdrop. During the freedom struggle, the Congress launched the Swadeshi movement, urging Indians to boycott cheaply manufactured British products and to rely on Indian bazaars. The colonial administration had banned the publication of Indian newspapers and Naidu cleverly used her poems to propagate these ideas.
Bazaars – common noun & countable noun
Hyderabad – proper noun & uncountable noun
Lyric-common noun & countable noun
Sarojini Naidu – proper noun &uncountable noun
Man – common noun & countable noun
Pursuits – common noun & countable noun
Aspirations – common noun & countable noun
Setting – common noun & countable noun
Marketplace – common noun & countable noun
Poem – common noun & countable noun
Dialogue – common noun & countable noun
Customers – common noun & countable noun
Vendors – common noun & countable noun
Colours – common noun & countable noun
Smells – common noun & countable noun
Sounds – common noun & countable noun
Tastes – common noun & countable noun
Milieu – common noun & countable noun
Backdrop – common noun & countable noun
Struggle – common noun & countable noun
Congress – proper noun & uncountable noun
Swadeshi movement – proper noun &uncountable noun
Indians – proper noun & countable noun
Products – common houn & countable noun
Administration – common noun &uncountable noun
Publication – common noun & countable noun
Newspapers – common noun & countable noun
Ideas – common noun & countable noun

Question 3.
In class today, we read the touching story of a conversation between a blind narrator and a girl he met during a train journey. The twist at the end successfully conveyed the Irony of the situation to the reader- both the narrator and his co-passenger had lost their sight, but were able to
successfully mislead each other!
class – common noun & (un) countable noun
story-common noun & uncountable noun
conversation-common noun &uncountable noun
narrator-common noun & countable noun
girl-common noun & countable noun
journey-common noun &uncountable noun
twist-common noun & countable noun
end-common noun & countable noun
irony-common noun &uncountable noun
situation-common noun &uncountable noun
reader-common noun & countable noun
co-passenger- common noun & countable noun
sight-common noun & uncountable noun

Exercise 2.

Quantify the following uncountable nouns to make them countable.

For example, jam-a jar of jam
1. Coffee – a cup of coffee
2. Bread – a loaf of bread
3. Wood-a log of wood
4. Money – a lot of money/some money
5. Butter – a tin of buffer
6. ChocoLate – a cake of chocolate
7. Juice- a tin of juice/ a jar of juice
8. Information – a piece of information
9. Glue – a bottle of glue/a tube of glue
10. Petrol – a litre of petrol
11. Sugar – a kilogram of sugar! a spoonful of sugar
12. Chips – a pocket of chips
13. Toothpaste – a tube of toothpaste
14. Detergent – a cake of detergent
15. Luggage – an item of luggage
16. Cable – a bundle of cable

Speaking : Getting Someone’s Attention And Interrupting

Here are some other expressions you can use to interrupt or get someone’s attention:

Pardon me… — I’m sorry, but…
Pardon the interruption, but… — Are you free for a minute?
I hate to interrupt you, but… — Have you got a minute?
I don’t want to interrupt you, but… — Could I just ask…?
I’m sorry to interrupt you, but… — Excuse me, but…
Could I interrupt…? — Sorry to butt in, but…
Excuse me, but do you have a moment? — Sorry, but could I ask you a quick question?

Here are some other expressions you can use when someone else interrupts you:
Yes? — Not at all.
That’s all right. — Yes? What can I do for you?
No problem. — Of course.
Sure — It’s not a bother.

Dialogue 1 (formal)

Razia wants to get the attention of her science teacher, who is in the staff
room correcting examination scripts.

Razia — Excuse me, ma’am. I know (that) you’re busy, but may I speak to you for a moment?
Teacher — Yes, Razia? What can I do for you?
Razia — It’s about the chart for the science exhibition. Can I make one with pictures of what a healthy diet should include?
Teacher — I think that’s a good idea. Razia. The chart will look attractive with pictures.
Razia — Thank you, ma’am, Sorry to have bothered you.
Teacher — That’s all right.

Dialogue 2 (formaI)

Manjula needs to deliver a message to the principal, who is in a staff meeting. She stands at the door of the staff room to get his attention.

Principal — (noticing Manjula at the door) Yes, Manjula, what is it?
Manjula — Sir, sorry to interrupt, but someone’s come to see you. He’s from the Board of Intermediate Education.
Principal — Thank you, Manjula. Please tell him l’ll’be coming in a minute. He could wait in my office.
Manjula — Yes, sir.

Dialogue 3 (formaI)

Roopa interrupts two strangers talking to each other at a bus stop.

Roopa — Pardon me, but could you tell me which bus goes to the railway station from here?
Stranger — 47 B.
Roopa — Thanks. I’m sorry, I interrupted your conversation.
Stranger — That’s okay.

Dialogue 4 (informal)

Veena is among her friends. Something occurs to her suddenly and she butts into the conversation to ask a question.

Veena — Just a minute. Does anyone know if Mrs Sharma is leaving for Allahabad tomorrow?
Naresh — I think she is.
Veena — Thanks. I need to send a packet for Sunder with her. Sorry, what were we talking about? Oh, yes, the movie …

Dialogue 5 (InformaI)

Lubna walks up to her friends who are chatting over coffee in the canteen.
Lubna Sorry, am I interrupting? I came to ask if some of you could come to
the college on Sunday. We need people to help us decorate the place for
the Independence Day celebrations.
Tony Sure, we can come. What time?


Try the following role-play activities to improve your speaking skills.

Question 1.
Enact Dialogues 1-5 with a partner, taking turns to play the role of the person interrupting/trying to get someone’s attention, as well as that of the person responding to the interruption.
Question 2.
Form groups of four or five. Your teacher will give each group ten minutes to prepare brief dialogue based on any two of the following situations.
Situation 1:

You interrupt an office meeting to inform one person about an urgent phone call.
Hrushi : Excuse me, Sir! I’m sorry to interrupt you, but there’s an urgent
phone call to a member of the meeting.
Manager : Thát’s all right. Whom is the phone call related to?
Hrushi : Sir, it’s related to Mr M. Raghuram.
Manager : I see. Mr Raghuram, please go and attend the meeting.

Situation 2:

You approach a group of strangers who are engaged in conversation, and ask one of them what time it is.
Raju : Excuse me, but do you have a moment?
Stranger : Yes? What can j do for you?
Raju : Could you please tell me what time it is?
Stranger : It’s not a bother. It’s 11:30 AM.
Raju : Sorry to have bothered you. Thank you very much, Madam.
Stranger : That’s okay. Pleasure is mine.

Situation 3:

Two teachers are talking to each other. You interrupt their conversation to ask one of them about a project submission deadline. Remember to greet both teachers!
Gnanika : Excuse me, Madams! Am I interrupting, Madams?
Teacher : Not at all. What can I do for you?
Gnanika : Could you please tell me the last date for submission of the project?
Teacher : Of course. It’s 25 December 2021.
Gnanika : Thank you very much, Madam. I’m sorry I interrupted your conversation.
Teacher : That’s okay.

Situation 4:

A man is reading a book in a bus station. You ask him for directions.
Supraja : Excuse me, Sir! I understand that you’re busy with your reading, but may I speak to you for a moment?
Man in the Bus : Yes. How can I help you?
Supraja : Could you please tell me the way to the Railway station from this bus station?
Man in the Bus : Sure. First, go straight till you reach the Ambedkar statue, then take Left turn and proceed for about 200 meters; and then take right turn. You will see the Railway station arch in front of you!
Supraja : Thank you very much, Sir. I’m sorry I interrupted your reading newspaper.
Man in the Bus : It was nothing important.

Post Reading: Creativity

Creativity : Creative or innovative thinking is the kind of thinking that leads to new insights, novel approaches, fresh perspectives, and new ways of understanding and conceiving things. The products of creative thought include some obvious genres like music, poetry, dance, dramatic literature, inventions, and technical innovations. But there are some not-so-obvious examples as well, such as ways of framing a question that expand the horizons of possible solutions, or ways of conceiving of relationships that challenge presuppositions and lead one to see the world in imaginative and different ways.

Creativity is an effective resource that is latent in ail people and within all organisations. Creativity can be nurtured arid enhanced through the deliberate use of tools, techniques and strategies. Critical and creative thinking are the two most basic thinking skills. Critical thinking is a matter of thinking clearly and rationally. Creativity consists of coming up with new and relevant ideas. To be a good and an effective thinker, both kinds of thinking skills are needed, Creativity can be divided into two kinds.

One is cognitive creativity that is involved in solving problems. The other Is aesthetic creativity relating to artistic creation. For many people, creativity is something reserved for scientists or artists. We need to make use of our creativity whether we are thinking about how to earn more money or how to make our loved ones happier. Many people also seem to think that creativity is a matter of waiting for inspirations. However, creativity is not a passive state of mind.

  • New ideas are composed of old elements.
  • Not all new ideas are equally good.
  • Creativity is enhanced by the ability to detect connections between ideas.

Some Cretive Techniques

i. Koinonia

Incredible breakthroughs have often taken place through simple, open and honest conversation. Socrates developed principles of infra-group communication. The participants of a discussion were bound by seven principles to maintain a sense of collegiality. Socrates called these principles koinonio meaning ‘spirit of fellowship’. These were:

  • Establish dialogue
  • Listen carefully
  • Exchange ideas
  • Clarify your thinking
  • Don’t argue
  • Be honest
  • Don’t interrupt

Socrates believed that the key to establishing dialogue is to exchange ideas without trying to change the other person’s mind. This is not the same as discussion which, from its Latin root, means to ‘dash to pieces’. The basic rules of establishing dialogue were ‘Don’t argue’, ‘Don’t interrupt’, and ‘Listen carefully’. To clarify your thinking you must first suspend all untested assumptions. Check your assumptions about everything/everyone with an unbiased view. Say what you think, even if your thoughts are controversial.

ii. Idea File

Idea file Maintain extensive idea files to stimulate new perspectives. Mark Twain once replied to an interviewer ‘All ideas are second hand, consciously or unconsciously drawn from a million outside sources and used by the garnerer with a pride and satisfaction born of the superstition that he originated them. A creative mind recognises the essential merits and attributes of a good idea and can adapt them in new contexts thus creating a new idea. You may realise that the entire idea applies or only one procedure or only small portion of the idea applies. Try modifying the ideas. Ask:

  • What can be Substituted? (Who else? What else? Other ingredient? Other process? Other power? Other place? Other approach? Can you change the rules?)
  • What can be COMBINED? (How about a blend, an alloy, an assortment, an ensemble? Combine units? Combine purposes with something else? Combine appeals? Combine ideas?
  • What can I ADAPT from something else to the idea? (What else is like this? What other idea does this suggest? Does the past offer a parallel? What could I copy? Whom could I emulate?)
  • What can I MAGNIFY? (What can be added? More time? Stronger? Higher? Longer? Extra value? Extra features? Duplicate? Multiply? Exaggerate?)
  • What can I MODIFY or change? (What can be altered? New twist? Change meaning, colour, motion, sound, odour, form, shape? What other changes can be made?)
  • Can I put the idea TO OTHER USES? (New ways to use as? Other uses if modified? Can you make it do more things? Other extensions? Other spin-off? Other markets?)
  • What can be ELIMINATED? (What to subtract? Smaller? Condensed? Miniature? Lower? Shorter? lighter? Omit? Streamline? Split up? Understate?)
  • What can be REARRANGE!? (What other arrangement might be better? Interchange components? Other pattern? Other layout? Other sequence? Transpose cause and effect? Change pace? Change schedule?)
  • Can it be REVERSED? (Transpose positive and negative? How about opposites? Turn it upside down? Reverse roles? Consider it backwards? What if you did the unexpected?)

Is your Idea crazy enough? The playful openness of creative geniuses is what allows them to explore ‘interesting’ chance events. In genius there is patience for the odd and the unusual avenues of thought. This intellectual tolerance for the unpredictable allows geniuses to bring side by. side what others had never sought to connect)

Situational Analysis

Question 1.
Show how you can be creative in the following situations:
a. in a kitchen: We all know that kitchen is the place for cooking. However, I prefer to change.the ambiance of the place by placing a music system there. By doing so, I can make it a place of peace and soothing power. I will also make sure that the old melodious songs available, since my mother loves such songs. It will enhance my mother’s happiness. In this way I make my mother’s kitchen work less strenuous.

b. writing an Informal invitation: Writing invitation is an art. But writing an informal one is challenging. instead of writing the invitation on the mobile phone, I prefer to collect the old post cards to write the invitation and send them to my friends and relatives. I hope that this old method of invitation would bring the golden old memories to my invitees.

c. trying to protect yourself from getting wet in the rain: One day when I was returning from my college on foot, it started raining heavily. Unfortunately, I forgot to carry my umbrella on the fateful day. But I did not forget to carry my mind’s ideas!

When it started raining, I looked for a shelter nearby, but in vain. Then I searched for something to protect myself from getting wet in the rain. There I found a green teak free. I collected its leaves and made the umbrella of leaves by stitching them with small twigs. Under its cover, I protected myself from the rain.

d. entertaining yourself when you are alone in an open ground with only two trees: In the afternoon of last Sunday,l went to the Municipal Ground hoping that my friends would come there, as regularly we meet there by the time. However, due to inexplicable reasons they did not turn up leaving me there all alone. I waited there for at least two hours with the hope of their arrival. After having felt bored, I stared to talk to the two frees standing nearby.

I imagined that they were like human beings talking to me and replying to my question. I asked them if they would like human beings for their role in the destruction of forests. Naturally, they replied negatively. Then I asked them about their finding of any good quality among humans. I was dumbstruck when I heard a chorus from them, “Planting sampling!”

Question 2.
List five situations where you can use creativity to present yourself better and say what measures you would take to do so.
a. Preparing a collage of a poem you read: I love reading poetry and I equally love painting the poems that I read in the form of collage. Taking inspiration from the great painter-cum-poet Rabindranath Tagore, I try to paint collages based on the themes of the poems.

Firstly; I collect different colours and brushes of all sizes. Of a good quality canvas is taken for the purpose. Then I look at the theme of the poem from different perspectives and draw mind maps. Next I allocate varied colours for different ideas and start applying a melange of colours on the canvas.

b. Waiting for a guest at the railway station when the train is late: Last week I happened to visit the railway station to receive a guest who was travelling by train. Since the train was late for hours together, I started feeling bored. However, in order to kill the boredom, I started to make a survey of the railway station which is hundred years old!

When I looked into the foundation stone which read “15.08.1918”, I was agape with surprise. With growing curiosity, I noted down the important architectural features of the building and observed that it was constructed in Indo-Arabic architecture. I wish I would bring my classmates to the station on a tour! ‘Suddenly, my guest touched my shoulder!

c. Cooking a special dish for your beloved parents on Sundays: Sunday is my favourite day, of course, it is every body’s favourite. Not that it offers free time but that it provides an opportunity to cook a special dish to my beloved parents’ When I get up I ask my mother and father to tell me what they want to have for their breakfast, lunch and supper.

I note down ail the food items and the required ingredients for cooking. I even browse YouTube channels for assistance in preparing some special food items. When the dishes are ready for eating, I invite my parents to the dining table. It gives me immense pleasure and satisfaction when they eat the food items prepared and served by my own hands.

d. Playing cricket when you are all alone: Cricket is my favourite game. I always love playing it. It requires someone to play with, since ¡t is a team sport. But it is difficult to me to get some people to either bowl or bat. One day I was all alone in my house and found no one to play cricket.

I got an idea of hitting the bell against the compound wall and hitting ¡t again when it returned. I played cricket on my own single handedly’ I took precaution that the ball would not bounce too high or too low. This solo play of cricket enhanced my concentration.

e. Speaking at the farewell party: Of late I have developed the fear of public speaking, especially speaking on the stage before large audience. Last year when the college farewell party was approaching, t was both eager to speak on the occasion and scared of stage. ¡ had sleepless nights before I decided to kill my fear.

I started thinking about the ways of dispel the fear and develop public speaking skills. I met my English lecture for some tips; I listened to hundreds of speeches on YouTube as models; and started getting on to the stage in the classroom. After a couple of months of constant practice, I went on to the stage of college auditorium speak fluently on the day of Farewell party. I never forget the day of killing my fear of public speaking.

OU Degree 1st Sem English Study Material

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