Sivapuranam in English – Vidyeshwara Samhita

Sivapuranam Lyrics in English - Vidyeshwara Samhita1

Sivapuranam is a sacred Tamil text that extols the greatness of Lord Shiva.

Sivapuranam in English – Vidyeshwara Samhita

Vidyeshwara Samhita

Thus spoke Sage Soota :
‘After many yugas (Aeons) began the present Shwetavaraha (White hog) Kalpa, a time span consisting of 4 yugas. At the start of this kalpa span, a group of six wisened and snow white haired sages of pious blood lines came together at the holy confluence of three sacred rivers, the Triveni Sangam to discuss who the Truth Ultimate, Para-Brahma could be? The debate failed to provide conclusive answer. So, the group of six went to the creator, Lord Brahma to pray for the enlightenment.

Interaction Between Brahma And The Sage Group

The interaction took place as the following:
Asked the sages – ‘O Creator Brahma! Who is the Ultimate One referred to as ‘Para’ that eludes definition?’
Revealed Brahma – ‘It is Rudra, the Shiva Eternal.’
Asked the sages – ‘How can we grasp His element, the core truth?’

Explained Brahma – ‘It is possible only through His blessing and the grace of His side glance (which indirectly empowers one with mystical comprehension). He himself inspires the chosen faithful gradually into greater devotion by His grace extraordinary.

Whatever is achieved by one is the fruit of His benignity. His benevolent grace leads one into the comprehension of His mysticism. And that comprehension or power of understanding reveals the elementary truth about Him, the core reality of His state.’

Asked the sages – ‘Amongst so achievables which one is the most important? What is the exercise that gains the achievement? Who exactly is the achiever or seeker?’

Replied Brahma – ‘The most desirable achievement is accessing the feet of Shiva (accessing the grace and benevolence of Lord). A seeker (who in success becomes achiever) is the one who has great reservoir of discipline, self-control and fortitude. His life is ordered according to the sacred rules prescribed by holy Vedas, in birth, custom and tradition he confirms to the ashram regimes and after performing all his acts surrenders their proceeds to Shiva.

Such a seeker without any doubt gains Kailasha, the domain of Shiva. For accessing His lotus like feet, gaining Kailasha the essential exercises are; hearing, pondering, studying and praying (shravan, chintan, manan and keertan). Hearing (here) means listening to the recitations of katha episodes of His glory, acts and grace. Pondering means retaining in mind what has been heard. Studying means contemplating over what the mind has retained. Praying means singing hymns in praise of Shiva.’

Ask the sages – ‘Please elaborate on the three exercises (shravan, manan and keertan. Chintan needed no elaboration)’.

Elaborated Brahma – ‘Listen please. Shravan is hearing recitation of His deeds, glory, grace and power. The physical world we see with our eyes. But more exciting is to hear about Lord Supreme, not perceivable to eyes, not utterable by lips or tongue (for want of correct words for description) and not conceivable to mind.

Driven by curiosity and thirst for knowledge one just has to listen about Him (revealed by enlightened ones). For this purpose a guru is imperative. As a young man gets attracted towards a girl of beauty, similarly hearing the (beautiful) tales of His glory would wean one to His devotion. That is shravan.

Now take keertan. It is the exercise of singing prayers of His glory and deeds in defence of the goodness and to punish the wicked and evil sinners. The praying must be carried on all the day and for ever.

Then, manan is exercising the mind to intellectually perceive the Lord Supreme, the saviour, protector, provider, benefactor and merciful. Alone, He can deliver and salvage one to grant moksha.

All the three exercises have a common ground of Satsanga, the association with men of wisdom, devotion, knowledge and piety. The company of such holy ones makes it possible for one to hear noble talk. Such hearing eventually leads to enlightenment.

One engaged in the three exercises continues to add more and more spiritual riches and inches closer and closer to Him. But without the benefit of His grace it is not possible for one even to make a beginning by taking the first step towards the right direction desired.’

Sivapuranam Lyrics in English - Vidyeshwara Samhita 1

Vyasa Learns Shivaism From Sanatakumara

The great Puran scholiast Soota continued: “My guru Ved Vyasa, the sage was -in meditation and making penance. One day, Sage Sanata Kumara arrived there. Ved Vyasa received the guest with great reverence and treated him to traditional welcome rituals like upacharas. Sanata Kumara felt very obliged and by way of thanks he taught Ved Vyasa the regimes of Shivaism as the following –

‘O son of Satyavati!
The ultimate objective of meditation and penance making must be the truth, the basic truth. And there is no truth better than the truth of Shiva. In this light, a seeker like you should be able to see Him. Tell me what had you been meditating over (when I arrived here)?’

Answered Sage Ved Vyasa :
T have studied the various exercises through which a man could attain the four principal objectives of life namely, spiritual enlightenment (Dharma) prosperity (Artha), physical satisfaction (Kama) and final salvation (Moksha), remaining true to the religious orders and social codes. But I could not gain the sublime knowledge (Jnan) that can work for the final salvation. I was pondering over that fact’.

Smiled Sanata Kumara and spoke :
‘Why should you worry about it? I too had gone through that kind of suffering troubled by doubts and anxieties and made penance in the past. By the grace of Shiva, I happened to come across (enlightened) Nandikeshwara who put me at ease. He revealed to me that only through shravan, chintan, manan and keertan (hearing, pondering, studying and praying) a seeker could access to Him (which assured the final salvation).

O progeny of Sage Parashara! You too must take recourse to the same three exercises. Banish all other ideas. Cool and determind, you must be. With perseverance pursue your aim

Sanata Kumara flashed towards the domain of Brahma, along with his followers after saying that.
Sage Soota said, ‘For the same reason, shravan, chintan, manan and keertan should be accepted as the only path to reach Him’.

Spoke the Sage Shaunaka and the group :
“Fine is what you have said. But this three-point exercise called Sadhana Trikam involves a long time span to accomplish. In Krita and Treta ages it was possible. Even in Dwapara age they were effective with some perseverance. Human beings in this Kaliyuga have short life spans. For a brief life, is there an easy (practical) way?”

Thus replied Sage Soota :
“There is an easy way to gain moksha in any age, not only in Kaliyuga. And that way is to worship Shiva by paying homage to Lingam, His symbolic idol. A faithful can have (miniature) Lingam on his palm, or in a special (pooja) room, in a place of worship or a temple. It can be at some sacred pilgrim centre. Thus worshipped, Shiva surely grants one moksha.

One can earn great credit through exercises of meditation, invocation, installation (of idol), worshipping with (alit) lamp, burning camphor, offering oblations of fruits, flowers or water etc. as ordered by the scriptures or worship manuals, and conducting all sixteen upcharas, the prescribed rituals with true devotion.

The faithfuls who can’ not go through the elaborate rites and rituals may simply worship the Lingam in a normal way considering it an idol. The perfection and all-inclusiveness of Shiva makes him worshipable as an image (inspite of His abstract reality). The other deities carry their identities rested in their idol forms having no abstract aspect or unmanifest form. Because of this exclusive aspect Shiva is also called ‘Sarveshwara’, the all-inclusive Supreme Deity.”

After hearing this scholium, the sage group asked :
“That is amazing. But how can Shiva gain all shapes and forms and still be abstract or ethereal having no shape, form or property? Please let us know that.”

Responded Sage Soota :
“I will reveal it to you. In the deep past sage Markandeya asked Shiva about it and He explained it. The same explanation I will repeat for your benefit:

Origin Of Shivalingam:

Thus spoke Nandikeshwara (Soota) :
Once, in the very early beginning of the creation Creator Brahma, the lord with five faces sitting atop a lotus (the stalk of which sprouted out of the navel of Vishnu) approached to Lord Vishnu, the most handsome lord who was then asleep on his serpent-bed of Adishesha.

His wife Laxmi was beside him. Brahma had grown an ego for being the creator of the universe. He considered himself to be the Holy Father of all. As Vishnu did not rise up to receive him, he took it as an affront to him. Brahma called out to him to wake up to show due honour to the Father of the creation. So, much so that Brahma addressed Vishnu as ‘son’.

Vishnu lost his temper as Brahma had come into existence on the lotus top that had sprouted out of his navel. Thus, Vishnu thought he infact, was the father of Brahma who had no right to admonish him. After all he was the sustainer of the creation.

However Vishnu used restraint and smiled. But the words spoken by him were sarcastic. He asked why the son had come to his father and disturbed his sleep? Then, he began to brag about his power, greatness and divine qualities. Brahma retaliated by citing his own virtues and craftsmanship. Soon, the two were engaged in heated exchange of unsavoury words. Their altercation took an ugly turn.

Each one of them thought he was the real God and the other one an impostor who deserved to be
tought a lesson. When words could not decide the’ issue they decided to fight it out. Vishnu got on his carrier Garuda and Brahma jumped on to astride his Hansa. The battle began. Both were seriously trying to kill each other. Dangerous divine weapons were being used by them.

Vishnu inflicted crippling blows on the chest of Brahma. Brahma also hit back with charges that hurt Vishnu. Suddenly the two resorted to their ultimate weapons like Maheshzvara and Pashupata which were diabolic enough to destroy everything. The gods, sages and other celestials were shocked and in that state they ran (Shiva) to pray to Him to save the worlds. Shiva accepted their prayer and disappeared. Suddenly, a huge pillar of luminosity materialised between warring Vishnu and Brahma.

The weapons released by them were swallowed in by the mysterious pillar. The blinding brilliance of the pillar made Brahma and Vishnu blink. The fight had gone out of them. In a stupor they appeared. They were mystified at the appearance of that luminous pillar which defied any explanation. It had no beginning or end at either side.

To discover its origin Vishnu transformed into a white hog and ran downwards to delve deep at its root. Brahma flew upwards in the form of a swan to find the top end of the pillar. They failed in their quests. No bottom or top was found. On his down flight Brahma saw a Pandanus flower adrift in the air. Brahma persuaded the Pandanus to support his claim that he had reached the top of the pillar where that flower had blossomed.

Brahma along with Pandanus returned to the spot from where he and Vishnu had began their journeys. Vishnu was there already sulking in defeat. Brahma proudly claimed victory and produced Pandanus (Ketaki) flower as proof and his witness. Vishnu sportingly accepted defeat and superiority of Brahma over him. He honoured the victor in traditional custom and rituals.

Shiva Materialises – Honesty Honoured And Falsehood Flayed

In the moments of defeat Vishnu had become a symbol of humility. He had become cleansed of his ego, self conceit and megalomania. All the evil effects of may a had vanished. After self correction, Vishnu had beamed his mind into Lord Shiva and was chanting his name in true devotion. He was repentful of his earlier misconduct. It supremely pleased Shiva.

From the pillar of luminosity He walked out in an altered form. Now Shiva had an eye on his forehead in addition to the two normal eyes. Resplendent and majestic, He looked with the blue throat, crescent moon crested in his plaited hair-nest and gleaming trident in his hand. With moist eyes He looked at Vishnu who overwhelmed with devotional fever quivered, feeling ecstasy sweep his heart and mind.

Shiva declared, “Vishnu! Your truthfulness has pleased me. So, now on you shall be as worthy a divinity as I am.” Then, Shiva turned his attention to Brahma who had used falsehood to gain a victory that could install him as God Supreme, superior mostdivinity. Shiva was angry at him. From his third eye Shiva produced His fiery form of Bhairava.

To Bhairava He ordered to grab Brahma and sever his heads. Bhairava caught Brahma by his hair chopped off his fifth head with his sword. Before the sword of Bhairava could deal the same fate to other heads Brahma fell at the feet of Bhairava and begged for mercy and pardon.

Vishnu prayed to Shiva to forgive Brahma as he had realised his mistake and he was needed for the continuation of the creation. Shiva agreed to spare the life of Brahma but put a curse, “You used untruth to become the Supreme Divinity. Now you shall be worshipless and bereft of celebration and place of honour. Merely a figure head deity you become.”

Brahma prayed to Shiva to lessen the severity of his punishment and restore his fifth head. Shiva said, “The head shall not be restored. There needs to be an example for others to see the consequences of wrong doing. But I give you boon to be the preceptor of my servitors and no yajna will be complete without your worship.”

Shiva Materialises – Honesty Honoured And Falsehood Flayed

In the moments of defeat Vishnu had become a symbol of humility. He had become cleansed of his ego, self conceit and megalomania. All the evil effects of may a had vanished. After self correction, Vishnu had beamed his mind into Lord Shiva and was chanting his name in true devotion.

He was repentful of his earlier misconduct. It supremely pleased Shiva. From the pillar of luminosity He walked out in an altered form. Now Shiva had an eye on his forehead in addition to the two normal eyes. Resplendent and majestic, He looked with the blue throat, crescent moon crested in his plaited hair-nest and gleaming trident in his hand. With moist eyes He looked at Vishnu who overwhelmed with devotional fever quivered, feeling ecstasy sweep his heart and mind.

Shiva declared, “Vishnu! Your truthfulness has pleased me. So, now on you shall be as worthy a divinity as I am.” Then, Shiva turned his attention to Brahma who had used falsehood to gain a victory that could install him as God Supreme, superior most divinity. Shiva was angry at him. From his third eye Shiva produced His fiery form of Bhairava. To Bhairava He ordered to grab Brahma and sever his heads. Bhairava caught Brahma by his hair chopped off his fifth head with his sword.

Before the sword of Bhairava could deal the same fate to other heads Brahma fell at the feet of Bhairava and begged for mercy and pardon. Vishnu prayed to Shiva to forgive Brahma as he had realised his mistake and he was needed for the continuation of the creation.

Shiva agreed to spare the life of Brahma but put a curse, “You used untruth to become the Supreme Divinity. Now you shall be worshipless and bereft of celebration and place of honour. Merely a figure head deity you become.”

Brahma prayed to Shiva to lessen the severity of his punishment and restore his fifth head. Shiva said, “The head shall not be restored. There needs to be an example for others to see the consequences of wrong doing. But I give you boon to be the preceptor of my servitors and no yajna will be complete without your worship.”

Pandanus Punished

The Pandanus trembled in fright. Shiva said to it, “Pandering Pandanus! Now you shall not be acceptable in any worship. Forbidden flower you become.” The Pandanus begged for mercy. Shiva relented and said His faithfuls could use it in worship ritual but it will remain unacceptable for direct worship of Shiva. The flower could be used for the worship of other deities.

Importance Of Ungam Worship Glory Of Shivaratri

After the pronouncements of rewards and punishments, Shiva reverted to his benign state. Vishnu and Brahma stood respectfully on his flanks. They got Shiva beseated on a high seat of honour. Then, the two chastised duo of Vishnu and Brahma sang odes to Shiva and worshiped Him in an elaborate manner with all due rites, customs and rituals.

It propitiated Shiva duly and in a benign mood he spoke, “Sons, I am very pleased with your worship. I want to make this memorable for ever. It shall be celebrated as ‘Maha Shivaratri’. I had manifested as luminous pillar on 14th day of second moon phase (fortnight) of Margashirsha month on the full moon day.

On this day, whoever keeps fast in my name and spends a wakeful night hearing recitation of My katha or singing hymns in My praise shall gain the credit of having worshipped Me one whole year The day will be auspicious for installation of Lingam, and for laying foundation of Shiva temples. This day and night would be dedicated to worship and celebrating Me.

The faithful who visions Me with Parvati or displays pageant of My idol or Lingam earns My grace of great magnitude. Viewing my idol and worshipping it will gain one endless rewards. By manifesting in Lingam form My divinity has increased manifold. This land shall be known as Lingam site. For the convenience of the people, this endless luminous Lingam will become very small.

The Lingam shall gain one very many worldly rewards and moksha as well in the end. Its viewing, touch and thought will deliver one from transmigration. Because of the materialisation of Lingam of the pink luminosity here, this place shall be known as ‘Arunachala’, the abode of pink. Great many holy centres would come up here.

Two forms I have, Shiva is My physical manifestation and Lingam of luminosity represents My unmanifest Abstract Reality. I can also manifest in propertyless, formless, infinite and unprecedented form. I manifested as Lingam to reveal my universality. Shiva manifestation shows My supreme divinity. Lingam is My symbolic form and it gains one the access to Me.

One who installs Lingam with true devotion gets unified with my divine reality and achieves final salvation in the process. The idol of Shiva form for worship is for those faithfuls who can not comprehend My abstract reality.”

Penta-Acts Of Shiva (Panchakrityas)

Brahma and Vishnu listened to the revelations made by Shiva in awe and they prayed Him to reveal the mystic of His five principal acts.

Elaborated Shiva to them :
‘It is difficult to understand the five divine duties I perform but in grace I shall reveal to you. The five are namely – Creation, Maintenance, Destruction, Regression and Grace. The start of the universe is Creation, sustaining its evolutionary process is Maintenance. Dooming the creation is Destruction.

Tendency of moving backwards is Regression (It is antonym of progression, a natural reaction to it.) A soul desires to go back into its origin, the Soul Supreme. The deliverance from these four exercises is possible by My Grace, which is the fifth act I perform.

My faithfuls see these acts in physical states – Creation in earth, Maintenance in water, Destruction in fire, Regression in air and Grace in sky or space. The earth creates, the water fosters, the fire burns all, the air carries from one place to another and the space obliges all. To carry out these five acts I have five faces, four facing the four directions and the fifth in the centre.

By My grace Brahma and Vishnu create and sustain respectively. The destruction and Regression are taken care of by Rudra and Maheshwara; My two unmanifest dimensions, who have the same mount, carrier, seat and image as Mine being of only reflective nature. As far as the grace is concerned it is dispensed only by Me, the Shiva form.”

After revealing this, Shiva remarked Vishnu and Brahma had degraded themselves by being jealous of each other. He advised them to attend to their respective allotted duties without growing ego. For penance making Shiva gave them a holy mantra for chanting and explained its mysticism.

His five faces issued five phonetic effects which combined to make the holy letter u (Om) which represented Supreme Force. The essence of Pentasyllable Ode of Shiva also grew out of it to make the greatest mantra – ‘Om-na-ma-shi-va-ya’ which is symbolic of manifest Shiva

(The ‘Om’ part is the symbol of abstract Power Supreme). The Pantasyllable mantra inspired the creation of great Gayatri mantra from which all Vedas issued forth and they created millions of mantra. Different mantras gain one different rewards, physical and spiritual both.”

Said Soota further :
‘Shiva made Vishnu and Brahma sit facing north and initiated them to the mantra properly. Later He blessed them with Yantra and Tantfas also, Yantra was a way of worship through mystical geometric design and Tantra prescribed the rites and rituals that went with it. The two accepted Shiva as their Guru Supreme and installed His idols at the places appointed for preceptor in their own abodes. As oblation the two pledged their souls to Shiva.

Sage Soota continued :
‘Sages and holy sirs!
Pentasyllable mantra if chanted continuously on the 14th day of the ascending moon phase of the month under star Arudra gains the devotee countless blessings and rewards. Worshipped be Lord Shiva’s symbol Lingam, duly installed by self or through true brahmin, with sixteen prescribed rites and rituals to ensure a place after death in the divine domain of Shiva.

Shivalingam :

Installation-Worship Rites

Lingam be installed at the bank of a holy river in an auspicious hour chosen to the convenience of all the faithfuls participating for daily worship.

Lingam can be made of clay or iron and a proper rectangular or triangular pedestal to install it on. Lingam and pedestal should be made of the same material. A portable Lingam should be small and handy (for easy transportation). Only an inch-tall Lingam can serve the purpose in such cases; for a devotee who only seeks salvation having transcended the temptations of the mundane world.

In case of grounded Lingam the size of Lingam should be about 12 finger breadths of the faithful or more is advised. The grounded Lingam should be provided a canopy and walls around adorned with pictures or sculptures of other deities or divinities. The doorways of the sanctum be embellished with precious stones.

Two door, one on east and other on west side are ordered. The ground below the installed Lingam may first be founded with nine types of gem stones planted with mantra incantations. The place be sanctified with havana rites and priest given money, and kith or kin satisfied with gifts. In this worship exercise faithful must take part with his family. Shiva’s ganas, guards and retinue be also invoked.

In case of planted Lingam, in a dug hole gold and nine kinds of gems be put with mantra incantations and invocation of Shiva. Then, with citations of ‘Om’ mahamantra Lingam be planted with pedestal in the hole. Then, a pretty idol of Shiva too be installed above with due rites and time honoured customs with incantation of Pentasyllable mantra. In worship of such pair, do not forget to honour the person who conducts or presides over this holy exercise.

After installing Lingam in such manners a faithful must worship it daily to gain mundane and ethereal rewards including a place in the domain of Shiva.

Expansive Aspect Of Lingam

Lingam in general sense has very diverse implications and its forms are infinite. In universal Shiva spirit every object or creature of all worlds is His manifestation and is like Lingam that. represent Him and hence is worthy of worship. The trees and plants are Sathawar Lingams (botanical forms). Watering them is the worship.

Then there are nature-made oblong rock Lingams, ice lingams (Amarnath) or of chemical compounds (Yellow Stone Park, U.S.) in caves, burning process creates Flame Lingams or smoke Lingams, water fall Lingams, root vegetable Lingams, foodgrain Lingams etc. besides the man crafted or moulded ones.

On religious format, Lingams can be made of sand, clay, jaggery, butter or kneaded flour. The faithful must bear such Lingam on his thumb and worship it with incantation of Pentasyllable mantra of Shiva observing all rites prescribed in the standard worship manuals.

A faithful can forego elaborate ritual route by donating a Lingam (of precious material or a simple Lingam with monetary charity).

A faithful must chant ‘Om Namah Shivaya’ (Pranava) ten thousand times a day, does it himself or gets it done by a brahmin priest in the spirit of being formally initiated into Shivaism.

Incantation of Pentasyllable mantra five crore times raises one to the status of Shiva. Four crore chants of the same gains one the holiness of priesthood. One thousand incantations of Gayatri mantra propitiates Shiva whose grace grants the faithful a place in the Kailasha domain. Remember that nightly worship of Shiva is more rewarding and gains more credit.

Those wishing the grace of Shiva shall gain by living in Shiva-domains (Shiva Kshetras).” Upon hearing this from Puran scholiast Soota, enquired the sages and holymen-‘Please reveal which places are considered Shiva Kshetras?’

Domains Of Shiva

Answered Sage Soota :

By the grace of Shiva and carrying out His command, the earth bears the burden of countless mountains and rivers. To shower His grace on the inhabitants of earth Shiva determined areas here and there as his domains of special effect. Some of those Kshetras are self born by being at right place or blessed naturally, others are created by celestials devoted to Him and the rest are founded by sages and holymen. Many such places dot the sea shores and the banks of rivers.

One such principal place is Kashi, situated on the bank of Ganga. Narmada river is another such domain bathing in which, coupled with fasting begets the faithful leadership qualities and virtue. Holy Godavari is also His domain. The mere invocation of its name cleanses one of all sins. It is the river most worshipful.

Kashi (Benaras) is most famous Shiva domain. A dip in Ganga here earns one the blessings one hundred evening prayers can gain one. One hundred such dips spiritually empowers one to take the first step towards mastering yoga. The blessings gained by daily bathing in Godavari are too great for words to describe.

This river has the power to cleanse all the sins of a faithful to grant him a place in Kailasha domain of Shiva. One is required to be pious and devout in all these domains of Supreme Divinity. The sins committed in the domains will lead the defaulter into burning hell. One having evil mind at a sacred place deserves no mercy as he is bereft of any faith.

Benefaction And Sins

Both these above mentioned acts have three aspects :

  • The seed (Potential)-With wisdom and knowledge it can be destroyed (or rendered harmless).
  • The Progression-The growth of the sinning acts can be stemmed by noble and charitable acts.
  • The Experience-The sins can be cleansed by spiritual enlightenment and charitable acts but the experience gained can not be washed away. It remains as residue (or collateral) to some extent.

The maleficent consequences of the sins can be avoided in four ways :

  • Worship of Shiva
  • Benefaction to the deserving candidate.
  • Vesting one’s mind in meditation and making penance.
  • Voluntarily undergoing extreme hardships in repentance.

The fourth way is an after thought. It does not prevent one from sinning, gaining its rewards and experiencing. Hence, one is advised to earn credits by doing noble and charitable acts to counterbalance sins.

Righteous Conduct

Asked Shaunaka and the group of holymen: How should one conduct oneself in the ideal manner prescribed by religious code?

Expounded Sage Soota :
The correct conduct is for one to rise early at dawn, answer the call of nature and wash clean. One’s chosen deity must be invoked and meditated over.

Next, he may attend to his physical self, financial and expenditure aspects. A person must invest time in money earning exercise to enable him to survive, conduct correctly and do noble deeds. It is essential to nurse one’s own health, strength capabilities and social standing. Income and expenditure be carefully assessed and planned. They all require serious thought and erudite consideration.

After these mental exercises, one may take his bath. Daily prayer and worship rituals come next. Gayatri and other chosen mantras be chanted. At home or in a temple these can be done. One remains family man till seventy before leaving home for Vanprastha ashram, to live as an ascetic. An ascetic must invoke ‘Om’ mantra at least twelve times a day.

In all aspects one’s life must confirm to the orders of religion, dharma. All acts must pass its test. Money may be earned through means prescribed and manner ordered by dharma. Spending must also follow dharma code. The physical indulgences in pleasure should not exceed the limits set by religious tenets or orders.

The best dharma of Kaliyuga is benefaction, the charity. It is equal to hard penance making in other yugas. Violence is worst kind of anti-dharma act. Generally, making others happy is dharma. Do no harm or hurt anyone. Thus, dharma is the foundation of peace and joy in individual and society’s life.


Prayed the seeker sages :
‘Holy sir! Please shed light on Yajna for our benefit.’

Obliged scholiast Soota :
‘Yajna is a very sacred religious exercise in which various gods and deities are invoked and oblations offered into holy fire in their names. It empowers them with divinity. The fire is the symbolic mouth of all gods.

For a yajna a lot of materials and ingredients prescribed by scriptures are required to be procured. Oblations are offered with invocation of the name of the particular deity along with incantations of Vedic mantras by priests and sages conducting it. In deva yajna Indra is invoked besides other gods. The daily recitation or study of Vedas is called ‘Brahma Yajna’.

In an early age Shiva determined the days of week (Vars) dedicated to various gods. Sunday is dedicated to Him. Wednesday (Budhvar) is dedicated to Vishnu. Thursday (Brihaspati) is for Brahma. The worship of the related deities on various days of week is as good a credit earner as yajna performed in the name of those deities. These are yajnas without fire and so is Brahma yajna. The yajnas are begetters of long life, health, offspring, happiness, prosperity, rains and knowledge.

A yajna exercise involves chants of mantra recitations, invocations, holy fire rituals and offering of oblations followed by benefaction, charity to the poor and mass fest of the participants and poor.

For different objectives there are different yajnas with specific procedures, rites and mantras. Some sages or priests specialise in particular type of yajnas.’
Here Soota took a breather.

Requested Shaunaka group :
“Please elaborate on Devayajna, the suitable time and place for it.”

Responded Sage Soota :
‘The most suitable places for Devayajna, are a neat and clean house, a cowshed, a holy river bank, bael tree (underneath), basil plant (in proximity) and under peepul tree. And a mountain peak is the best place, ten times better than sea shore which is itself ten times worthier than the river bank. Yajnas yield diminishing returns as yugas (ages) pass on.

Kaliyuga yajnas are far less rewarding than those of earlier ages. Any day calculated as auspicious of religious act in the religious almanac is fine for this yajna. But still better are solstice ends, sun eclipse and moon eclipse days in that order. Yajna regimes don’t follow strict formats. Various houses and families have their own yajna traditions and distinct norms.’ Then, Soota revealed how worship of the idols protected a householder and his family from calamities.


Get clay from the river bed. Knead it with sandalwood powder and milk. Make a beautiful idol of any god like Ganesha, Surya, Vishnu, Parvati, Shiva or Lingam with it. Sit in cross legged, Padmasana posture and worship with devotion with the materials prescribed for a standard pooja. Do not offer water or milk over the idol as it will melt idol. In case of clay idol only flowers be showered or placed on. Use incense, lamp and naivedya items in worship for better results.

If the deity chosen for worship has a weekday dedicated to him, then choose that week day for worship alongside other considerations. Proper worship should be followed by a feast to family, friends and relatives besides the poor. For long life, Shiva be worshipped on 4th day of the waning moon phase of the month of Margashirsha. The month of Kartika is good for worship and praying to all the gods and deities.

Bindu-Naad Mystery (Dot-Hum Secret)

In Shivalingam, the male and female sex organ shapes are assimilated which symbolises the birth of universe. Hence, there is a separate regime of worship for Shiva to pay tribute to the creative exercise. Entire cosmos is reflection of Pinuiu-Naad. Bind is the symbol of Female Power. Naad, the hum of cosmic echo is Shiva.

The universe is the union of the two. Hum is the base of Dot (Bindi) and Dot is base of the universe. Into the base is planted what is based on. All inclusiveness is the spirit of the creation. Shivalingam is the unified form of the gender organs in symbolic shape. So, it is also called the cause of the creation. Bindu (Dot) represents the power of feminity and Shiva is cosmic echo, Naad. Parvati is the manifest form of Bindu. Hence the two are the parents of the universe; in their worship we pay homage to our original forebears.

Since the very birth a creature falls prey to various worldly temptations and remains trapped in transmigration. For a creature only hope of deliverance lies in the grace of Shiva. Shiva Lingam may be bathed and ointed with Panchamrita (cow milk, curd, ghee, honey and sugar).

Offer oblation of mixture of milk and food grains to Shiva with chant of Aum (Om). The one word Om mantra is also called Bindulingam, Naadalingam, Makarlingam (From planted lingam), Ukarlingam (From portable lingam) and Akarlingam for being symbol of initiator guru. They be worshipped to gain moksha.

The Power Of Pentasyllable And Pranava (Om)

Implored the sage audience to Soota :
‘Kindly tell us more about Pentasyllable mantra (Panchakshari).’

So did scholiast Sage Soota :
Really, only Shiva can reveal the full mysticism of Pentasyllable mantra but I shall tell you whatever I comprehended according to my lights.

First know about Pranava, the ‘Om’ which initiates all mantras taking the position of Prefix. This one letter symbol of Power Supreme is like a boat (Nava), a divine boat (Para-nava) in which Shiva carries us all across the ocean of mundane life. Pranava is micro aspect of mantra. The Pentasyllable mantra of Shiva is macro aspect. Together they make the most potent mantra ‘Om Nama Shivaya’.

We can say that Pranava part is the soul and Pentasyllable is the body part of the mantra. For the ardent devotees of Shiva, although they be family people, the Pentasyllable mantra is macro Pranava, the micro part of it being present silently due to the relation with Shiva. A family person devotee may be at three levels of devotion to Shiva-namely Kripa yoga, Tapa yoga and Japa yoga in that order. The highest is the level of Japa yogi.

Kriya yogi uses his resources and riches to aquire best worship materials, makes obeisance and tries to gain the grace of his deity. Tapa yogi carries on the worship exercise, eats frugal meals and controls exterior sensory organs. Japa yogi inculcates noble qualities, lives piously and with a steady mind keeps up the holy chant (of Pentasyllable mantra) orally or mentally all the time (like a penance maker).

Bondage And Deliverance

(The mention of the grihastha, the family people made it mandatory for Soota to explain the worldly bondages and deliverance.)
Sage Soota said :

An individual born in the mundane world is held in bondage by eight factors, namely nature, intellect, ego and five elements (Prakriti, Buddhi, Ahamkara and Panchbhootas-earth, water, fire, air and space). One so bonded is trapped in a vicious cycle of birth and deaths in changing body forms. That is transmigration. To attain deliverance from this cycle one has to transcend these factors by His grace. Shiva is above nature. So, seeking refuge in Shiva is the only way of salvation from transmigration.

He is bereft of any fault and consciousness. In that sense there really is little need of worship to Him. In His abstract reality He has no form (Nirakar) and no property (Nirgun). But for the benefit of devotees He may manifest in deity form and have various qualities or character. Then worship becomes purposeful. With body, mind and actions under control by His grace, an individual gains spiritual piety eventually leading to salvation and a place in the domain of Shiva.

Ego is banished and the intellect is distilled into wisdom and spiritual enlightenment. An individual becomes yogi with mind and cerebral power under control of wisdom. One is then in the image of Shiva.Deliverance from transmigration is possible only through devotion and worship of Shiva and Lingams, His symbolic forms.

Classified Lingams

For brahmins Rasalingam (juice, liquid) is prescribed, for kshatriyas Banalingam (arrow); Swarna Lingam for vaishyas, Sunderlingam for shudras, Clay Lingam for unwidowed women, Crystal Lingam for all females and persons of all ages for rejuvenation effect and Miniature Lingam that one can hold on his palm is advised for those who have refrained from doing sinful act.

They can offer worship to palm based Lingam and oblation of naivedya too before taking food. A miniature Lingam can also be worn around neck like a locket. This mysticism was taught to me by my guru, Sage Ved Vyasa and I pass it on to you. May you be able to earn the grace of Shiva.

Further elaborated Sage Soota, after a pause:
In Kritayuga, Tretayuga, Dwapara and Kaliyuga, respectively Diamond Lingam, Gold Lingam, Rasalingam and Parthiva (stone) Lingam prevailed and are in use presently in this age. And amongst Parthiva (stone) the Clay Lingam is the best for propitiating Brahma, Vishnu and Indra besides Shiva, of course. The five point rule (Panchasootra) prescribed for idol making do not apply in the case of Parthivalingams. Lingam must just be made whole, one piece, materially uniform but the

planted one be in two pieces, buried Lingam part and installed above Shiva part. For the one in the know of Lingam mysticism, it itself is Shiva, the Deity Supreme.

The worship of the Lingam should be performed according to the general rites and rituals detailed in scriptures (general texts) and Shastras (the books of religious tenets and codes for various rites and worship) subject to the orders contained in Purans and scriptures related to Shiva or Shivaism. “A devotee can say prayer of his own if it comes from his heart, in glory of Lord and to seek His grace. Originality in devotional sentiment is no bar. Holy sirs! The worship of Lingam is a great fulfiller of wish and it gives one the credit of innumerable yajna performances.

Numbers Of Worship

Asked the holy group :
‘O scholiast Soota! How many Lingam worships are required to gain fulfilment of wishes?

Replied Sage Soota :
The number of worships depends on the kind of wish the faithful has. For gaining spiritual wisdom one thousand worships are required, fifteen hundred for riches, five hundred for material, one thousand for land, three thousand for the merciful disposition, two thousand for desire for pilgrimage and one crore worships for salvation or moksha, performed in proper and prescribed manner.

Nothing is more rewarding and pious deed than worship or Shivalingam. Daily worship as a ritual wards off all troubles. Invoke all the forms and aspects of Shiva in the worship. While worshipping the devotee may sit on the south side of Lingam or idol facing north. One should not sit on the other three sides.

For faithfuls of Shiva there are three special ingredients for worship-

  • Holy ash,
  • Rudraksha rosary and
  • Bael leaves.

If ash is not available the clay can be used as the substitute for applying three-forked Tilak (Tripunda). There is misconception about Naivedya, the edible offerings to Lingams or Shiva as being forbidden for consumption of the faithfuls as prasadam. It is not correct. Nothing is wrong in eating it as gift of Shiva. Infact, the very sight of it is rewarding. Its consumption as prasadam is spiritually satisfying for a worshipper.

Prayed Shaunaka and the holy group :
Learned Soota! Tell us the legend of Bael tree and the beneficience of Holy Ash (Bhasma) and Rudraksha.

Answered enlightened Soota :

The Legend Of Bael (Bilva)

Bael tree is considered to be the botanical manifestation of Shiva. In the roots of this tree lie the holiness of all the centres of pilgrimages. Worship under Bael blesses the faithful with growth and flourishing of his bloodline. Lighting up lamp under Bael tree gains one Shiva knowledge (Jnan).

Feeding a brahmin under this tree earns one the credit equivalent to feeding one crore people. A faithful will not be stalked by poverty if he offers kheer and ghee in devotional sentiment to the poor people under this tree. A devotee may water Bael tree because water fed roots of it pleases Shiva. Remember its roots are Lingam symbols. Hence, worship be done near the roots.

Greatness Of Sacred Ash (Bhasma)

Now listen to the sanctifying aspect of Bhasma, the sacred ash. Bhasma is of two kinds: Mahabhasma and ‘Swalp Bhasma’. The former has its three types-Shrota, Smarth and Laukik. The first two are meant for brahmins to be used with proper rituals and incantation of mantra. The third is for general devotees for use without invocation of mantras.

The sacred ash is prepared from cowdung cakes sanctified by fire. It is Agni Bhasma. It can also be procured from holy fire pits (Havan kunds) of yajnas, havans and other religious exercises involving fire rituals as residue of the holy practice. The sacred ash may be smeared on the body. It may be applied on the forehead in Tripunda (Three Forks) shape, from the centre of eyebrows upwards, two side lines drawn up with ring fingertip and the middle one with thumb.

Each of the three lines is abode of nine deities. It gains one worldly pleasures and moksha after death. While applying ash or making Tripunda chant Shiva mantra. With Tripunda on forehead and Rudraksha in hand or neck a devotee announces his deep faith in Shiva. Catching a sight of such person is in itself blessingful. One who does not chant His Pentasyllable name, does not apply bhasma to body or wears no Tripunda and goes about without Rudraksha rosary, a wretched one is he! So say the spiritually enlightened ones.

Rudraksha-Its Glory

Continued Soota with his revelations :

In benignity, blessingfulness, reward gaining, joy giving and moksha granting Rudraksha is as potent as Shiva self. It literally means ‘Tears of Rudra’ i.e. Shiva self. The story of its origin will reveal its glory and efficacy as He himself once confided to His consort, Parvati.

In the early aeons of the creation once Shiva made penance for thousands of divine years with steady mind. Then, anguished by thought of being the carrier of the burden of the welfare of universe, He opened His eyes on purpose. His eyes shed tears that sprouted up as trees of Rudraksha at places of Gaur land, Mathura, Ayodhya, Kashi, Lanka, Malyachala mount etc.

That was the divine inspiration behind it. Rudraksha dried up fruit-seed can be in sizes of a gram grain to amla, the Indian goose berry. The Rudraksha beads are blackishbrown in colour. Stringed into rosary they can adorn the devotee’s neck or wrist. In the neck, a Rudrakshamala is like a necklace of divine pearls.

Rudraksha rosary can wipe the tears of its wearer, the faithful of Shiva. Such is the glory of Rudraksha. The bigger the size of Rudraksha, the bigger is its efficacy. So, the goose berry size Rudrakshas are very precious. Still rare bigger ones are treasurable and blessingful. The mala of Rudraksha is very convenient for Japa

(The chant of a mantra or a deity’s name) for count when the specific number of an exercise is required. The large grain (goose berry size) Rudraksha reduces malefic aspects. A small Rudraksha red on top and black underneath can fulfil wishes of one’s heart. So, smaller ones are extra efficacious. Stinged into a rosary they act like a spiritual weapon against evil and lend aura to the user or wearer.

The rounded, strong, deep brown and having grainy surface are blessingful and auspicious. Disfigured, broken, worm infected, moth eaten and non-round Rudraksha should not be acceptable. When intended to be stringed Rudraksha a hole can be drilled manually if it does not have a natural. hole. But ones with natural hole are more efficacious.

A person wearing 1100 grains of Rudraksha in the form of rosaries becomes Rudralike. One can wear a crown made of 550 Rudrakshas. The most accepted rosary of Rudraksha consists of 108 grains. Chanting Pentasyllable mantra (Panchakshari) with Rudraksha on is very potent spiritual exercise.

Three faced Rudraksha blesses skillfulness, four faced is divine and sin cleanser, five faced fulfils wishes and grants moksha, six faced is like Kartikeya, seven faced begets money, eight faced gains one a long life and Rudrakshas with still more faces are progressively more potent and benefic. The one with 14 faces is like Almighty.

Thus, explained Sage Soota the glories and efficaciousness of Bilva, Bhasma and Rudraksha to greateful Shaunaka and the holy group. He also revealed the procedures of various exercises related to them and the prescriptions. And that brought the Vidyeshwara chapter to end.

Sivapuranam Lyrics in Tamil English Hindi Telugu with Meaning, Sivapuranam Pdf Free Download

SivaPuranam Lyrics

The Puran itself is the creation of Lord Shiva himself, the mystical wisdom crafted in words, moulded into one hundred thousand couplets or quartets (Shlokas), divided into twelve chapters (Samhitas); and first revealed in grace to the creator, Lord Brahma who relayed it to his favoured son, Narada. Then, it was relayed in succession to Sanat Kumara and Ved Vyasa. The latter condensed the massive volume into 24,000 shlokas categorised under seven chapters namely: Vidyeshwara Samhita, Rudra Samhita, Shatarudra Samhita, Kotirudra Samhita, Uma Samhita, Kailasha Samhita and Vayuviya Samhita.

The enlightenment with the mysticism of Shiva-Jnan was truly possible only for Sage Ved Vyasa, a literati of the sacred texts as he was. He could abridge the original text of Shiva Puran to make it sharp and focussed with distilled mysticism. By the grace of Shiva, the inspiration behind his endeavour was to remove the diluting impression a voluminous text carried, out of compassion to all and to impart the enlightenment to others in digest form. A man of great literary talent he was. Later, he visualised the entire epic of Mahabharata in his mind. Upon the suggestion of Brahma, Ved Vyasa dictated Mahabharata to Lord Ganesha who penned it down non-stop.

Sivapuranam Lyrics with Meaning, Siva Puranam in Tamil English Hindi Telugu PDF Free Download

Sivapuranam in English

Shiv Puran in Hindi

Shiv Puran in Gujarati

Sivapuranam in Hindi

  • शिव पुराण-माहात्म्य
  • श्रीशिवमहापुराण विद्येश्वरसंहिता
  • रुद्रसंहिता प्रथम (सृष्टि) खण्ड
  • रुद्रसंहिता द्वितीय (सती) खण्ड
  • रुद्रसंहिता तृतीय (पार्वती) खण्ड
  • रुद्रसंहिता चतुर्थ (कुमार) खण्ड
  • रुद्रसंहिता पंचम (युद्ध) खण्ड
  • शतरुद्रसंहिता
  • कोटिरुद्रसंहिता
  • उमासंहिता
  • कैलाससंहिता
  • वायवीयसंहिता (पूर्वखण्ड)
  • वायवीयसंहिता (उत्तरखण्ड)

Learned Ved Vyasa, then imparted the knowledge of Shiva Puran to other scholarly sages like Soota and Shuka. Sage Soota revealed the mysticism and glory of Shiva Puran to other holymen through a discourse. Soota was the son of Romatharshana and a favoured disciple of learned Ved Vyasa.

Panchakshari Strotam Pentasyllable Ode To Shiva

One who adorns king cobra, has eyes three,
Ash besmeared is he, the Supreme Deity,
Eternal, pious and dressed in directions,
Obeisance I make to thee, Shiva, the name
bearing syllable ‘na’

Bathed in Mandakini, ointed with sandal paste,
The lord of Nandi and his band of servitors,
Worshipped with hibiscus and blooms myriad,
Obeisance I make to thee, Shiva,
the name with syllable ‘ma’

Shiva, the face like rising sun to Gauri,
The destroyer of yajna of Daksha,
One who has blue throat and bull ensign,
Obeisance I make to thee,
Shiva, the name with syllable ‘shi’

One whose paeans are sung
by pot-born sage, Vashishtha
and Gautama;
is that most sublime Lord.
One whose eyes are the embodiments of the sun,
moon and fire,
Obeisance I make to thee, Shiva,
the name with syllable ‘va’

One with the looks of Yaksha, with hair plaited,
The unborn eternal who sports his trident,
The deity naked like bare truth but dressed
by sides around,
Obeisance I make to thee, Shiva,
the name with syllable ‘ya’

The Pentasyllable ode, a rewarding mantra, if recited with true devotion with the mind beamed in Lord, gains one the holy domain of Shiva, repleting oneself with happiness of His grace.

Revelations By Soota

A great many sages and seers had converged On the holy centre of Prayaga, situated at the confluence of Ganga, Yamuna and mythical Saraswati by the will of Lord. Sages headed by Shaunaka approached Sage Soota and requested him to reveal the glory and mysticism of Shiva Puran to them. Soota gladly accepted to oblige the holy group.

Spoke great sage Soota beginning his narration:
“O accomplished sirs! You are seized by the desise to know the glory of divinely supreme Shiva. Hear this, there is nothing more of value and blessingfui than reciting or hearing Shiva Puran. Even hearing one Katha (Tale) contained therein, a part of it, an episode or just half of it earns one Lord’s blessings, redemption, salvation and deliverance from transmigration.

Fasting and listening to the recitation of Shiva Puran on the 14th day, the Chaturdashi, of the moon phases shall earn the faithful great credit and make one worthy of worship by others.To earn the grace of Lord and glory, note that the Rudra Samhita and Kailasha Samhita are the most effective, efficacious and blessingful. All the wishes of a faithful will be fulfilled if he recites Rudra Samhita for three days in the presence of the idol of Bhairava dimension of Lord Shiva.

But Kailasha Samhita is even better between these two in auspiciousness and efficacy. Shiva Sublime only knows the true importance of this. Even my preceptor, learned Ved Vyasa grasped only the half according to his own admission. Myself may be the knower of only a quarter of it.’It is the will of Shiva Sublime, I guess.

The Pentasyllable ode (Panchakshari Mantra) to Shiva is revealed in Shiva Puran directly; at places indirectly or subtly or symbolically in respect of all its aspects, including its power and efficacy; the ordered way of its incantation and recitation; the prescription for gaining the rewards of three categories (Trivargas) namely, dharma, artha and kama (religious, financial and physical); and achieving the final salvation or moksha, the end of transmigration. I will reveal to you the knowledge whatever I was able to comprehend by the grace of Lord although it is impossible to translate it all in words. Speaking thus, Sage Soota began the story of Devaraja.

Devaraja’s Tale

Long time ago, there lived a brahmin named Devaraja in the town of Kiratanagara. A very lax, unprincipled and degenerate life he lived. No bathing and no praying was the order of his day. He was lecherous by nature. It appeared that the sole object of his life was to make money and spend it on vice games to satisfy his carnal desires. He would not mind cheating others and creating misunderstandings between friends and relatives.

One day, he went to the pond to wash himself for a change and happened to see there a woman of easy virtue called Shobhavati. Devaraja could not resist the coquettish gestures of the evil woman. She took away all the money he had by and by. He completely ignored the pleadings of his parents and the wife. To be free to do whatever he liked, he went to live with the evil woman in her house. When he had blown away all his money, the woman kicked him out of her house. She had no use for him any more.

The brahmin roamed around and reached a place called Pratishthanapura. He fell ill there. He thought he was going to die. In a nearby Shiva temple he took shelter. On the floor he lay unable to move. There was nothing he could do but listen to the recitation of the Shiva Puran and religious sermons being delivered to faithfuls. The sermons and recitations concluded on the day he finally” died.
The agents of the lord of death, Yama duly arrived there to take charge of the soul of Devaraja to take it to the hell of afterworld. But the servitor agents of Lord Shiva intervened to stop them.

The agents of death revealed the long list of sins the dead brahmin Devaraja had committed during his life time. The agents of Shiva reasoned that what the dead man had done or how he lived no longer mattered, since the last few days of his life were spent in hearing the recitations of holy Shiva Puran which had cleansed him of all his sins. They took the soul of Devaraja to the Kailasha domain of Lord Shiva.

To his puzzled agents, Yama explained, when they expressed their surprise over the incident, that great was the glory of Shiva and great was his grace bestowed upon those who listened to the kathas of Shiva Puran. Sage Soota narrated another story – the story of Chenchula.

Chenchula’s Tale

Once there lived a brahmin called Binduga and his wife named Chenchula at a place called Bashkala. Binduga fell to the fatal attraction of a woman of evil ways and infamy. He could not go home or try to meet his wife. Chenchula felt hurt and hardpressed to make a living, she resorted to the oldest profession as evil men were never far away.

Binduga learnt about the scandalous act of his wife and returned home. He thrashed her, but the unrepentant wife accused her husband of disloyalty and dereliction forcing her into prostitution to stay alive.

A lengthy argument followed. At last an agreement was reached, according to which each of them was to carry on one’s evil ways. Chenchula would turn over all the money she made to Binduga who could spend it on his own whores. Chenchula always found customers who paid her money for sex. And Binduga needed money. For the benefit of the world they continued to play husband-wife roles.

In this way they lived and one day Chenchula became a widow. She continued with her whoring way of life. One day, she reached Gokarna, a holy place where recitation of Shiva Puran was on in the Mahabaleshwara temple. Out of curiosity Chenchula heard some snatches of it. She learnt that the sinners were condemned to hell where Yamaraja tormented them with horrific punishments. It frightened her. After the recitation, Chenchula went to a Pauranic, the scholiast of Puran.

She confessed her sins to him. The scholiast advised her to hear the recitations of Shiva Puran with her mind beamed into Lord Sublime. Chenchula faithfully did so. As a result, she got salvaged in her death and her soul was taken to the domain of Kailasha. There, Chenchula lived in the blissful company of the maid servant of Ma Supreme, Gauri.

Chenchula Redeems Binduga Too

Chenchula, one day relayed up a prayer to Ma Gauri revealing her desire to know the whereabouts the soul of her husband Binduga. She learnt that her husband would suffer the tortures of hell for his sins. And currently he was going through the woes of an unfulfilled spirit in the form of a wicked ogre haunting Vindhya mountains. Chenchula prayed for his salvation from that ghost life.

The gracious Ma Supreme smiled and sent a gandharva named Tumbura with her to the Vindhyas. Ma advised Tumbura to recite Shiva Puran to the tormented soul to cleanse it of its sins. Accompanying Tumbura and Chenchula also were two of the guards of Shiva.

Tumbura was able to contact the evil spirit of Binduga on the Vindhya mountain. But it would tot hear Shiva Puran. Hence, the guards of Shiva ensnared it. Tumbura strummed his string instrument (Tambura) and crooned the glory of the great lord, Shiva. The sweet strains of melody wafted through the air of the mountain side. Even angels and fairies descended to hear the sanctifying melody revealing the glory and the deeds of Lord Shiva.

It was time for the redemption of evil spirit of much sinned Binduga. The evil got washed away and spotless soul shined out. Binduga had been salvaged. Chenchula went back to Kailasha accompanied by her husband. There they lived happily together ever after.
So efficacious was the grace of Shiva.

Sage Soota continued to reveal the joy begetting and sin-cleansing powers of Shiva Puran the consort of the goddess Ambika (Parvati). Soota exhorted the sages and other holymen to hear his narration with great attention. Then, he resumed his elaboration of Shiva Puran.

Hanuman Chalisa Chaupai 1 Meaning in English

The Hanuman Chalisa is a revered devotional hymn dedicated to Lord Hanuman.

Hanuman Chalisa Chaupai 1 in English with Meaning & Analysis

Hanuman Chalisa Chaupai 1 Why Monkey as God

जय हनुमान
ज्ञान गुन सागर ।
जय कपीश
तिहुँ लोक उजागर ॥

Jai Hanuman
gyan gun sagar
Jai Kapish
tihun lok ujagar

Victory to Hanuman
who is the ocean of wisdom and virtue.
Victory to the divine amongst monkeys
who illuminates the three worlds.

Hanuman Chalisa Chaupai 1 Meaning in English

In this verse, Hanuman is addressed for the first time by his most popular name, Hanuman, and identified as a monkey (kapi). Classically, Hanuman means one with a wide or prominent or disfigured jaw, indicating a monkey. Colloquially, in the Hindi belt of India, the name means one without ego, pride and inflated self-image (maan), a meaning that makes sense when we appreciate the structure of the epic Ramayana, where Hanuman appears for the first time.

Some scholars have proposed that the word Hanuman comes from a proto-Dravidian word-an-mandi, which probably means male monkey-later Sanskritized to Hanuman. They also point to Hanuman being called Anuman in Thailand and Andoman in Malaysia, lands where Dravidian culture spread a long time ago.

It has even been proposed that the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal got its name from sailors who told stories of the great monkey who had the power to leap across the sea and reach distant islands. Those familiar with early Tamil Sangam literature dispute this theory. The Ramayana reached its final form roughly 2,000 years ago, and is one of the first epics to be composed in India with the intention of communicating Vedic ideas to the masses. It marks the birth of a new phase of Hinduism known as Puranic Hinduism, which is also marked by the rise of temple culture.

Before the Ramayana, for over a thousand years, may be more,Vedic ideas were communicated using chants, melodies, rituals and conversations, not stories. This had a limited audience, the intellectual elite, such as priests, philosophers and aristocrats, with ample time on their hands. To reach out to a larger audience, Vyasa-the man who is credited with organizing Vedic hymns composed the stories and epics compiled in the Puranas, including the story of Ram.

Some say Vyasa composed the stories himself, some say he compiled stories he heard from other sages, like Markandeya, and still others say he heard it from Shiva, or from the birds and fish who in turn had overheard the conversation between Shiva and Shakti. Amongst the birds was a crow called Kakabhusandi who told the story of Ram to the sage Narad who passed it on to the sage Valmiki, who transformed the story into the world’s first poetry, which is why the Ramayana, the maha-kavya, is also called adi-kavya.

In the Ramayana, we find three sets of characters. In the north are the humans (nara) in Ayodhya, led by sages (rishis) who seek to enable humans to expand their mind, discover their divine potential (brahmana), which is the essence of Vedic wisdom. In the south, beyond the sea, on the island of Lanka are the demons (rakshasas) led by Ravana, son of a rishi (Vaishrava, son of Pulastya), who uses Vedic knowledge for power, and fails to internalize Vedic wisdom. In between, live the monkeys (vanaras).

Words like ‘north’ and ‘south’ in the Ramayana need to be read metaphorically, not literally, because Vedic thought is all about the mind, and secks to inform how we ‘see’ the world. Ram is a metaphor. So is Ravana. So is Hanuman. The Ramayana takes place in the landscape that is our mind.In nature, animals, including monkeys, compete for food, and so dominate and mark territories to secure their food. All behaviour is aimed at ensuring the body survives. This is the jungle way (matsya nyaya).

To outgrow these animal instincts is the hallmark of humanity; it is our divine potential. To walk this path is dharma. But when we indulge in competition, domination and territoriality, we become worse than animals; we become demons, who subscribe to adharma. Ram embodies dharma. Ravana embodies adharma. Hanuman, from amongst all the monkeys, makes the journey towards Ram.

The world is composed of the self (sva-jiva) who lives in the ecosystem of others (para-jiva). For animals, monkeys included, the other is predator or prey, rival or mate. But humans have the ability to outgrow these hardwired animal instincts. The ‘north’ in the Ramayana is the highest potential that we can realize where the self is not consumed by its own hunger for, and fear of, the other, but by empathy for other people’s hungers and fears. This caring world is the world of Ram.

The ‘south’ in the Ramayana is where there is so much hunger and fear that the other is seen only as food and enemy, and the self (jiva-atma) twists itself and transforms into the ego (aham), unable to appreciate the divinity in the other (para-atma), hence the continuum of divinity that permeates the whole infinite universe (param-atma). This self-indulgent world is the world of Ravana.
Hanuman Chalisa Chaupai 1 Meaning in English 1

The rishis, who Ram defends, are sages who go from the north to the south to enable, empower and enlighten the hungry and the weak. They know that the other will see the sages from the north either as invaders or as patronizing benefactors, who seek to destroy their way of life. The rishis also know that should their wisdom slip, they will themselves be enchanted by the knowledge and power they are revealing.

Ravana, a son of one such rishi, embodies what can go wrong. Ravana uses his great strength, knowledge and intelligence to exploit those around him, be their lord and master, make them followers, rather than liberating them to find their own path. The liminal or in-between space between the north and the south is the land of the monkeys, our animal core, that can move either way, towards Ram or towards Ravana, towards empathy or towards exploitation, towards dharma or adharma.

The hungry and the frightened seek combat and conquest, hence vijay-victory where someone is defeated. The wise seek a different kind of victory, jai-where no one is defeated, where the self is able to conquer its own hunger and fear to acknowledge, appreciate, even accommodate the other. Both jai and vijay seem to mean the same thing, ‘hail’ or ‘victory’, but there is a nuance in the meaning, the preference for internal victory in the case of jai over external victory in the case of vijay. This jai is what we want for Hanuman, and from Hanuman, as we read the Hanuman Chalisa.

Many people are uncomfortable with such symbolic, structural, or psychological readings of the Ramayana and want it to be historical. So vanara becomes forest (vana) people (nara), or primitive (va) humans (nara). They see north as the Aryan homeland in the Gangetic plains and the south as the Dravidian homeland south of the Vindhyas.

Such rationalizations are often seen in people who are unable to differentiate the physical from the psychological, the measurable (saguna) from the non-measurable (nirguna), the form (sakar) from the formless (nirakar). Since the world is diverse, diverse readings of the Ramayana must be appreciated with empathy so that we appreciate the diverse needs of the human mind.

Hanuman Chalisa Chaupai 1 Analysis in English

jaya hanumana gnyana guna sagarai
jaya kaplsa tihu loka ujagara || 1 ||

Hail Hanuman, an ocean of
knowledge and virtues
The Lord of monkeys who illuminates
the three worlds.

It is said that a fool is recognized the moment he opens his mouth. And a wise man remains unnoticed unless he opens his mouth. Speech reveals the level of your knowledge. Hanuman was such an ocean of knowledge that it was through his speech that Rama realized what a powerhouse Hanuman was! The first sentence of the first doha of the Hanuman Chalisa brings out the profound abundance of knowledge and virtues packed in Hanuman

When Lord Rama and Lakshmana met Hanuman for the first time on the foothills of the Rishimukha Mountains, Hanuman captured Rama’s heart with the first few words he uttered. On hearing only a few words from Hanuman, Rama pulled Lakshmana aside and extolled the glories of Hanuman.

Rama shared with Lakshmana that Hanuman was an ocean of knowledge and virtues. He had yet to meet someone like Hanuman who was as vaakya kushala or a magical weaver of words. Rama estimated that Hanuman must have spent a large quantum of time studying under expert masters. The quality of his speech reflected the quality of his education.

Hanuman must have been so highly qualified that Rama couldn’t detect a single flaw in either his speech or his body language, which is simply an extension of one’s speech. Rama was convinced that Hanuman had complete mastery over the Vedas. Why? Because mastery over the Vedas manifested itself through expertise in different aspects of communication and self-expression. Mastery over Atharva Veda brings in natural humility that reflects in one’s words and gestures.

Mastery over Yajur Veda, is indicated by lavishness in one’s vocabulary and a great retention power conferred by Yajur studies. Mastery over Rig Veda gives one the power of reproducing things verbatim on hearing just once. Mastery over Sama Veda adds a charm, suppleness, and melody to one’s voice. Eloquence in speech is strength derived from digested knowledge.

Definitely Hanuman knew vyakrana or grammar to perfection. He was expert in mimamsa as he made no mistake in sentences. He was definitely proficient in tarka or logic, as he made no mistake in the tone in which different words were spoken. While talking, his body was so still that the listener was entirely focused on his speech alone. He knew which words were to be uttered from his palate, which to be uttered from the stomach, and which to be uttered from the nasal passage.

The effect of producing sound from different locations created different emotions and had desired effects on the listener at subtle levels. Rama deciphered all this simply by hearing a few words from Hanuman! In fact, Rama was of the opinion that if a cruel enemy with a raised sword heard Hanuman speak, he would drop his weapons. Hanuman could win hearts just by speaking a few words.

When Hanuman was a small child, he expressed his desire to gain knowledge from the best teacher in the universe. His father Kesari directed him to Surya, the sun god, whom Hanuman had intuitively and spontaneously selected as a storehouse of knowledge that he could devour. When Hanuman approached the sun god for admission into his school, Surya declined him stating lack of place in the classroom as the reason. There were already six million sages occupying, the orbiting chariot which was Surya’s mobile classroom.

But nothing could deter Hanuman. When there is intense eagerness, there can be no obstacle big enough to stop you. Hanuman reasoned with his teacher that he didn’t really need a place to sit. All he needed was his permission. Surya, of course, happily gave permission to such an enthusiastic student. For Hanuman, hearing was the most important part of education. As long as he could hear his teacher, nothing else mattered.

Any inconvenience was a price he was willing to pay for the good fortune of hearing from a great preceptor. As the flying school floated around the earth’s orbit, Hanuman flew outside the classroom, parallel to them, facing his teacher. Sometimes Hanuman had to fly forward and sometimes backward, depending on the orientation of the chariot. Though faced with constant inconveniences, Hanuman paid rapt attention to the lessons being imparted and absorbed every word like a sponge.

The master had no need to repeat a single concept and the student did not forget a single lesson. In a matter of just sixty orbits of the sun, Hanuman had mastered all the Vedas and their auxiliaries. In addition, he had mastered the nine vyakranas or rules of grammar in just a matter of nine days, what would take years for normal students. But the most amazing aspect of Hanuman was his humility. Although he was amongst the most knowledgeable people in the world, he served Sugriva who possessed not even a fraction of that knowledge. He served Sugriva simply because his teacher wanted him to do so. To serve someone who is inferior to you in every way requires real humility.

It is often seen that those with vast knowledge tend to become arrogant. They develop a sense of superiority that eclipses humility. But not so with Hanuman. Though he was most erudite even amongst the greatly learned (buddhimatam varistham), his humility stole Rama’s heart. Hanuman was not just an embodiment of knowledge but also the embodiment of every virtue, as a result of having digested that knowledge. He was not just gyana sagar or an ocean of knowledge but also guna sagar or an ocean of virtues, jaya hanumana gnyana guna sagara The word kapi means vanara or monkey. When Lord Vishnu was about to incarnate as Lord Rama, he had instructed all devatas to take birth on the earth as vanaras.

When he heard of this, Lord Shiva also became extremely eager to appear as a vanara. Lord Shiva explained to his wife Sati that he had been waiting for an opportunity to serve Lord Rama. Since his desire was to serve the Lord who was to appear in a human form, Shiva felt that it would be best to take a form that was less than a human form.

Thus a monkey form would be most apt. A human being may hesitate to engage another human in menial service, but a monkey’s service would be acceptable unhesitatingly. Thus Lord Shiva chose the form of a monkey to make his contribution to Rama lila. Since he wanted to focus on his service and not be distracted by the presence of his wife, he decided to remain a celibate in that role.

Sati became sad and dejected at not being able to participate and assist her husband in this incarnation. Then she was suddenly struck by a brilliant idea that would satisfy both of them. She proposed to Lord Shiva that she could incarnate as the tail of the monkey that Shiva became. Shiva agreed and thus Hanuman was bom who was Rudra and Shakti combined together.

The word kapi also has another underlying meaning. This is in connection with its Sanskrit roots. Pi in Sanskrit means to drink and ka means joy. So kapi in this connotation means to drink joyfully. But drink what? Kapi refers to Hanuman as the one who joyfully drinks the nectar of Rama katha.

The word kapish is derived from the words kapi and isha, which means king of monkeys. This verse refers to Hanuman as Kapish, the king of monkeys, when he was clearly not the king. When Vali was alive, Vali was the king of monkeys and after his death, Sugriva became the king. Hanuman was not a king but a kingmaker. Whosoever stood by his side, that person became the king. Then why is Hanuman called the king of monkeys?

This is because true leadership is always measured by influence. Vali and Sugriva only sat on the throne, but Hanuman sat in every heart. Sitting on a throne is easy, but to rule hearts is difficult. Not only did he rule over the hearts of every citizen of Kishkinda, he also ruled over the hearts of Sita and Rama. Not only did he rule over the hearts of Sita and Rama, but by their blessings, continues to rule over the hearts of unlimited beings even today.

Thus he is rightly addressed as kapish or king of Vanarasaya kapisa tihu loka ujagara. The universe was trembling thanks to Lord Vishnu’s pastimes. Because of this, Lord Brahma who was sitting on the lotus and meditating, opened his eyes. The ewer (kamandalu) slipped from his hand. Now this was not an ordinary kamandalu. It held all future events within it. The kamandalu falling meant all the future events stored inside it also fell out. Brahma being alert, gathered all of them meticulously and filled them back in the kamandalu. No harm done, so he thought.

Meanwhile, Indra discovered two galaxies missing from the universe. He informed Lord Vishnu and the two of them went to Brahma to find the cause behind it. Brahma revealed to them how the kamandalu had fallen from his hand and future events had scattered too. Lord Vishnu requested Lord Brahma to check if anything was missing from there. Searching through, Brahma recalled that a demon named Kaalant had also been stored inside the ewer but was missing now.

Kaalant was to be born at the end of Brahma’s life, 33 years later. But the mishap had released him much before his time. He had the power to eat all the universes including galaxies, planets, and stars. He could also swallow Adityas, Arun Deva, and celestial chariots belonging to Indra and Surya. His release could create a dangerous situation for one and all.

Lord Vishnu and Lord Brahma wondered what to do. Unfortunately, Lord Shiva was deep in meditation and could not be disturbed. Pushed into a comer, Lord Vishnu remembered Hanuman. Hanuman was one person who could save the world for sure! Lord Vishnu left to meet Hanuman who was at that time an adolescent.

As usual, Lord Vishnu found Hanuman in meditation on his master Lord Rama. Being an emergency, he apprised him of the situation faced by the universe. Things were so bad that Kaalant had even swallowed the Kaal Chakra. Without wasting a minute, Hanuman knew what he had to do and set off in search of Kaalant. All the demigods blessed Hanuman and empowered him to overpower Kaalant. However, Kaalant was not an ordinary demon. He was made of antimatter. When he swallowed matter, it collided with antimatter and both got destroyed. That was the secret of his strength.

Hanuman first tried to persuade him to go back to the kamandalu and come when it was the right time. Kaalant refused point blank. He challenged Hanuman to a duel. During the fight, Hanuman stepped into the Kaal Chakra and got transported to Fairyland. Fairyland was also in chaos. A demon had kidnapped the queen’s daughter and all the angels were wallowing in sorrow.

Hanuman went to the demon to rescue the damsel in distress. The demon shared his woes with Hanuman about a curse upon him by a vampire. To undo the curse, he needed a special pearl from the queen of angels. The glow of the pearl was sufficient to release him. But the queen had refused to part with her pearl leaving the demon with no option but to kidnap her daughter.

From the queen of angels Hanuman learnt that her pearl was in safe custody in Challoka, the world of cheats. Hanuman reached there too but the planet had been captured by dwarfs. Hanuman fought the dwarfs and restored Challoka to its original king who happily gave Hanuman the special pearl. Hanuman dropped the dwarfs to their planets but being in a hurry, he reached the wrong planet which was underwater. He saved the king of that planet too who in turn gave him a compass, a direction indicator. Hanuman used it to come out of the Kaal Chakra and go back to his universe.

Back home, he pursued Kaalant and engaged in another battle with him. Kaalant being antimatter, Hanuman thought of a novel strategy to defeat him. He allowed Kaalant to swallow him. Diving into his stomach, he found all the galaxies and planets that had gone missing. He also found Arun Deva and requested him to rotate the Kaal Chakra in a clockwise direction. Not surprisingly, everything started falling back in its place. Everything but Kaalant who started experiencing severe pain in his abdomen vomited Hanuman out.

Lord Vishnu and Lord Brahma then reasoned with Kaalant that if he kept Surya Deva hidden then he would also die before time. Everything should happen in its own time. Kaalant had suffered enough so he understood their logic and agreed to go back into the kamandalu. Before that, he released Surya Deva, the galaxies, planets, and stars and normalcy was restored. Hanuman had saved the world once again, jay a kaplsa tihu loka ujagara.

OU Degree 6th Sem English Study Material Notes Syllabus

Osmania University Degree 3rd Year 6th Sem English Study Material

Osmania University Degree 3rd Year 6th Sem English Study Material

Unit 4

Unit 5

Unit 6

Osmania University Degree 3rd Year 6th Sem English Syllabus

A Visit of Charity Questions and Answers & Summary by Eudora Welty

A Visit of Charity Questions and Answers & Summary by Eudora Welty

OU Degree 1st Sem English – A Visit of Charity Questions and Answers & Summary

Question 1.
Why does Manan hide the apple? Why does she eat It immediately after leaping onto the bus? Explain the symbolic significance of the apple.
Manan hid the apple, because she did not want to share it with the old women in the home. There is also a religious meaning in the symbol of the apple. The apple, the representation of man’s fall from grace in the Garden of Eden, when Eve bit the apple and then offered it to Adam, is used to allude to Marian’s sin at not bringing anything into the home with her. She is indifferent to the suffering that goes on in the home and goes because she needs to earn credit as a Campfire Girl, but her intentions are not pure.

She does not like the environment, she keeps herself at an emotional distance from the residents and deprives them, not only of the apple that she hides, but of her full attention. She offers no comfort, no love to those women, she does not view them as people.

“The old woman who desperately needs love, is constantly referred to as a sheep or a little lamb, the implication of Manan’s bite into the apple is clear.” “She has refused to feed the sheep – literally by refusing to give the apple to addie and symbolically by refusing to give her love.” At the end of the story, Manan retrieves a red apple she hidden in the bushes. She then jumps on the bus and takes a big bite out of the apple. This is an interesting moment in the story.

The apple is red and the girls coat Is also red, so this is a significant color. As she spends time in the nursing home with the objectified animal-like old women, Manan just wants to escape and to thrive. By running out of the nursing home and taking a big bite out of the apple, Manan shows that she rejects old age and death, and chooses youth and life. She will not think of the old women anymore and will go on living a vibrant life.

Question 2.
Marlan’s motive for visiting the Old Ladies Home are for from compassionate. Explain.
In ‘A Visit of Charity’ illustrates the story of a fourteen year old girl Marian, who is a Campfire Girl paying a visit to the old Ladies Home in order to earn points as a compfire Girl Manan thought that this would be an easy task that would take just a little of her time and an insignificant effort on her part. She even brought a potted plant for extra points. Manan thought she was going to visit a sweet and kind little old lady, but she encountered not that type of ladies, but two old ladies who were bad tempered, argumentative and uncooperative.

When manan first approaches the nursing home it is described as a very cold place. The author describes that the nursing home is cold, it may not be physically cold, but mentally and emotionally cold. This makes the home feel unwelcoming, dead and unloving, The room that Manan visits is dark, with a drawn shade and too much furniture. As there are no colours, decorations, or beauty brightens this a room, which is packed with beds, a chair a ward robe, washstand, a rocker, and a bed table.

The wet smell of everything and the wet appearance of the bare floor suggest that this cramped room is move like stall in a barn, a place for animals, than for use by human unsanitary. The elders in the room were wild, with pet-like mouths and red eyes like a sheep. Manan perceived the old women she meets sometimes as things and sometimes as animals. During her brief stay at the Home, Manan thinks of the first old woman as a bird and the second as a sheep.

Marian came to give a thing, a potted plant, not herself. She even gave less time than another Campfire Girl who read the Bible to the old women. As she yells for the bus to wait, leaps on she shows her untouched feelings and undisturbed ignorance. Marian left the women more lonely and distraught than she found them. The kind of charity is uncharitable indeed.

Question 3.
Use examples from the text to examine how the old ladies behave with Marian. Why do you think they act the way they do?
Marian must spend time visiting an old ladies home as an act of charity, and is sent to visit the room of two old ladies. Among the two old ladies, one is a babbler, who is incapable of letting a moment pass in silence. She is silly and annoying to her roommate – Old Addie. Addie is cranky and bedridden, and seemingly at the mercy of her roommates continual chatter. She is suspicious and resentful of the girl’s visit. While her roommate is playful, snatching the girl’s hat off her head.

When Marian goes to visit the Old Ladies’ Home as an act of charity for her Campfire Girl requirement, she expects that it will be a quick and painful visit. During her visit, Marian sees women who remind her of sheep and who bicker constantly. As she watches the two old women, they become increasingly mean to each other, and Marian becomes increasingly disoriented. At one point, Marian can’t even remember her own name.

When the old woman makes Addie cry, saying the reason she’s upset is because it’s her birthday, the spell over Marian is broken. Once Addie cries, Marian recognizes the cruelty of the women and is able to break free. Therefore Addie’s crying and the shabby room causes Marian to abruptly leave the women’s room, but the recognition of the ugliness and cruelty in that place and between women ultimately impels her to escape. She sees how mean the women are to each other and has a glimpse of what her future might be like when she gets older.

In the nursing home the patients are herded around by the staff and treated as if they are not real people. Welty’s message is that nursing homes are not nice places for the elderly to be and only by going and witnessing it, like the girl does, will anyone know how mistreated and demeaned the people who live there are.



Vowel sounds are used in almost all languages, this is a kind of sound that does not need the mouth to be closed, when you are pronouncing It. Vowel contrasts with consonant sounds on this aspect. One needs to close his or her mouth when pronouncing a consonant sound.

Plosives are the kind of sounds usually associated with the letters p, t, k, b, d, g in which airflow from the lungs is interrupted by a complete closure being made in the mouth. There are six plosives in English /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/ and /g/.

A consonant sound can occur at the beginning of a word. (i.e., in the initial position) at the end of the word (i.e., in the final position), or any where between the first and the last sound of a word (i.e., in a medial position).

/P/ and /b/ are produced with the constriction at the constriction at the lips (bilabial).
In the case of /P/, the vocal folds (cords) produce no voicing, and is consequently known as a voiceless plosive.

/t/ and /d/ are produced with the constriction of the blade of the tongue against the ridge behind the upper teeth (alveolar), /t/ is voiceless.

/k/ and are produced with the constriction of the back of the tongue against the back of the roof of the mouth, the soft palate (velar); /k/ is voiceless.

A Visit of Charity Questions and Answers & Summary by Eudora Welty 1

Minimal Pairs:

A minimal pair consists of two words which are identical except for a single phoneme at a particular position. This phoneme can be either a vowel or a consonant sound.

Examples of minimal pairs :

  • pin and bin
  • alive and arrive
  • pen and pet

Look at the table below. It contains two examples each of minimal pairs in which different sounds are,

  • /p/ and /b/
  • /t/ and /d/
  • /k/ and /g/
/p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /k/ /g/
pit bit train drain cot got
pair bear tear dare come gum


Write three more examples for each set.

/P/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /k/ /g/
pin bin ten den clean green
pan ban tin din cane game
cup cub ton done cave gave
nap nab right ride cut gut
prick brick fate fade pick P*S
mop mob lent lend creak great


Noun Finite Verbs

A verb is a word used to describe on action, e.g., jog. Verbs can be finite or non-finite.

1. A Finite Verb

A finite verb is a verb that has a subject. He jogs home, the pronoun he is subject and jogs describes what the subject is doing. A finite verb is affected by tense (jogs, jogging, jogged) and number (He jog/ They jogs).

2. A non-finite verb

A non-finite verb is not affected by tense, person or number. There are three types of non-finite verbs. Infinitives, gerunds and participles.

a. Infinitives
Infinitives are the most basic of a verb, often preceded by the word ‘to’. They may function as adverbs, nouns or adjectives.

  • I struggle to understand. (functions as adverb)
  • To exercise is good for the body. (functions as noun)
  • I do not have time to enjoy dinner. (functions as adjective).

b. Gerund
A gerund is a verb ending with ‘-ing’ which functions as a noun. Gerund can take different forms. It can be the subject of a sentence like Swimming is fun. It can be the direct object like.
I love swimming or the indirect object like I have not given much thought to swimming.

e.g : Travelling is my favourite hobby.
Are you interested in singing?
Walking keeps us active.
She does some volunteering in her free time.

c. Participle

A participle is a word formed from a verb and act as an adjective. Participle can be of two types; Past participle and Present participle.
e.g. : The movie was interesting. (present participle)
Eating freshly picked fruits is good for health (past participle)
Ladakh is fascinating. We are all excited to be going there. (present and past participle).


Underline the non-finite verbs, if any, in each of the sentences below.

1. He gave me a pen to write with.
2. It was a sight to see.
3. I want to buy some vegetables.
4. Barking dogs do not bite.
5. I had my car polished.
6. She was wearing a designer outfit. (No Non finite verb).
7. Finding the door open, my mother went inside.
8. Nitya is doing her homework at the moment. (No Non finite verb).
9. The proposal has been examined today. (No Non-finite verb).
10. Vardhan has finished his exams. (No Non-finite verb)


Simile and Metaphor

a. Simile
A simile Is a figure of speech or literaxy device that makes a direct comparison between two things of different kinds, using the words like’ or ‘as’

1. His hair is as black as coal.
hair compared with coal

2. She is as brave as a lion
a person compared with a lion

3. Her eyes sparkled like diamonds
eyes compared with diamonds.

4. The water was as black as night.
5. She was as busy as a bee and had no time to relax,
6. The room was so warm it was like a sauna.
7. She moves with such grace, like a gazelle.
8. My love is like a red rose.

b. Metaphor

A metaphor describes a person or thing as someone quite unrelated that it considered to have a similar characteristics. It equates two different things without using the words ‘like’ or ‘as’

1. This city is a concrete jungle equating the city with a jungle.
2. Her words were poison equating the horrid nature of someone’s words with poison.
3. All the world’s a stage equating the world we live in with the idea of it being a stage on which we all perform.
4. You are the light of my life
5. How old are these computers? They are practically dinosaurs.
6. They were covered in a blanket of flowers.
7. London is a melting pot.
8. The wheels of justice grind slow.


Use of ‘ie’ and ‘ei’

A common error made by many English language learners is to misspell words which include the combination of letters i.e., or e.i. Fortunately, there is simple rule in the form of a rhyme which can help overcome this problem:

I before E, except after C, or when sounding. like ‘ay’

I before E Expected after C or when sounding like ‘ay’ ∗
believe ceiling neighbour
chief deceit vein
priest receipt weight
friend receive beige
patient transceiver sleight

The words are spelt ‘ei’ because the words have an ‘ay’ sound. But there are exceptions to this rule, they can only be remembered by memorising their spelling.

A Visit of Charity Questions and Answers & Summary by Eudora Welty 2

Fill in the blanks to correctly spell the words

1. heir
2. pier
3. seizure
4. financier
5. mischievous
6. achieve
7. shriek
8. surveillance
9. counterfeit
10. feint
11. protein
12. their
13. died
14. species
15. glacier
16. leisure


Semicolon (;)
It is a punctuation mark that indicates a pause between two independent clauses.
It is a longer pause than comma.

1. We wanted to read thirty pages; we only read twelve (The two complete sentences, ‘We wanted to read thirty pages’, and ‘We only read twelve’, are linked by the common idea of reading.)
2. He needed to see a doctor; he hurt himself while playing football.
3. These trousers are ruined; hopefully your tailor can mend them.
4. Chiru is a good actor, dancer, fighter and humanitarian; and we all honour him.
5. Reading makes a full man; speaking a ready man; writing on exact man.
Semicolons can also be used In lists, when the items in the list contain commas


  • I have four sisters: two in Hyderabad, India; one in London, England, and one in paris, France.
  • Ram’s favourite types of food are: chicken biryani; not mutton; masala dosa and butter chicken.
  • There were three people I knew at the art exhibition: Miss John, our class teacher; Tara, my neighbour’s daughter; and Mr. Gopal from the bank.

Exercise :

1. The weather was terrible it wouldn’t stop raining.
The weather was terrible; it wouldn’t stop raining.

2. Her fitness is poor she will probably not do well in the physical education exam.
Her fitness is poor she will probably not do well in the physical education exam.

3. Some universities offer scholarships others do not.
Some universities offer scholarships others do not.

4. Oh, it’s such a lovely day; I might go meet my friends at the park!
Oh, It’s such a lovely day; I might go meet my friends at the park!

5. We have to stop at the petrol bunk the car is low on fuel.
We have to stop at the petrol bunk; the car is low on fuel.

Determine whether the sentences below require or do not require a semicolon.
If they do. mark the semicolons correct position. if you think a comma has been used Incorrectly, change It to a semicolon.

1. She went swimming every day while on holiday in Coorg.
No error

2. He is not from Hyderabad he is from Bangalore.
He is not from Hyderabad; he is from Bangalore.

3. I want to go to the library, but I think it might be closed today.
I want to go to the library, but I think it might be closed today.

4. Are you okay travelling by bus, or do you want to travel by train.
Are you okay travelling by bus, or do you want to travel by train?

5. All of the art supplies are in that cabinet, we only take then out during ant class.
All of the art supplies are in that cabinet we only take them out during art class.


Asking for Information

Asking for information in English can be as simple as asking for the time, or as complicated as asking for details about a complicated process. In an academic or work environment, you may find yourself struggling to understand how to complete a task.
In such situations the best thing to do is to ask someone for help or information.
When asking for information form a friend, use a more informal form.
When asking a colleague, use a slightly more formal form.

Sample sentence with questions used to ask when seeking assistance:

1. Excuse me. I’m sorry to bother you, but can you help me with this? It just won’t open!
2. Pardon me. I was wondering if you could tell me the way to Meeting Room 4.
3. Hello. Do you know how to use this programme? I’m afraid I’ve never used it before and on finding it quite difficult to operate.
4. Hi. Have you any idea what the time is? Thanks
5. Please excuse me. I don’t suppose you know how to turn this machine off? I’d really appreciate your help.
6. Thank you for coming, every one! n, sorry to interrupt, but can anyone tell me where Amrit is?
7. Sir? Do you know who has the keys to this room?
8. Madam? Are you busy? I just wanted to ask you a few questions about the report and its deadline.
9. I should be grateful if you would send me the details.
10. Could you please give me the details?


Question 1.
You have a job interview with an organisation you admire, but when you arrive at their office you cannot remember in which room the interview is taking place. You ask the receptionist for help. Write down what you would say.
Good morning ma’am. I’m sorry I forget in which room the interview is taking place. Could you please guide me to the interview room? Excuse me could you tell me in which room the interview is taking place.

Question 2.
You are working on your presentation but do not know how to insert a table into one of the slides. You call a colleague and ask for help. Write down what you would say.
Hello. Do you know how to insert a table in the slides? I’m afraid Ive never did it before and am finding it quite difficult to insert it.

Question 3.
While on vacation in Goa you get lost and separated from your friends. You do not have your phone with you and cannot remember your phone with you and cannot remember your friends phone numbers. You approach a shopkeeper to ask for directions back to your hotel. Write down what you would say.
Excuse me, I’m sorry to bother you but can you help me to know the direction to the hotel Taj Krisha as I lost my way and missed my friends too.

Question 4.
You are unwell and miss your English class. The next day you meet your English teacher to discuss what you missed and what you need to study. Write down what you would say.
Good morning madam. Are you busy? I just wanted to ask you regarding yesterday’s class as I wouldn’t attend it due to ill health. Kindly tell me what am I supposed to study.

Reading Passage

Hyderabad : The Heart of Telangana

The city of hyderabad is located in the heart of Telangana. It contains major tourist attractions such as Golconda Fort, Charminar, the Qutb Shahi Tombs, Chowmahalla Palace, Salar Jung Museum and the Nehru Zoological Park. It has a population of 6.7 million, Hyderabad the ‘City of Farls’ has a rich history. It was founded in 1591 by Muhammad Quali Qutb Shah, of the Qutb Shahi dynasty. In 1724, Mir Qamar-ud-Din Siddiqui of AsafJah dynasty was granted the title of Nizam – ul – Mulk of the Hyderabad region.

The city flourished under their reign growing economically and culturally as the Nazism were great supporters of literature, art, architecture and food. In 1947, after independence, the Nizam of Hyderabad declared of making Hyderabad a separate independent territory.

The newly established Indian government initiated an operation – code named operation polo-in which the Indian army moved into the state of Hyderabad on 16 September 1948 to combat the Nizam’s army. Five days later, the Nizam’s army surrendered and the Nizam signed the instrument of Accession where in the state of Hyderabad merged into the India Union. On June 2, 2014, following a movement of separation, Telangana was awarded its own state and Hyderabad was declared the state capital.


Note – Making

Making notes while listening to a lecture or while reading an article or a book is not only a very useful study skill but is aJos one that will help you at work. Besides helping you remember what you read or heard some time ago, making notes will enable you to organise your own thoughts better. This is because while making notes you will also be considereing the importance of the different points in the matter you are reading or distening to and drawing your own conclusions about them.

Necessary skills for effecitve note-making

  • Ability to read attentively
  • Ability to comprehend what is read
  • Ability to distinguish between important and unimportant ideas.

Characteristic features of effective note-making

  • Usually written in the form of points
  • May also be written in the form of tables, charts and diagrams.
  • Lists all that is essential.

Guidelines on Making Notes:

1. When making notes, take down the main or important points. You can do this by looking for special words that introduce new information or by picking up signals received from the speaker’s tone.

2. Use a clear layout with inter-lines spaces, subheads, bullets, etc., so that you will understand the notes later.

3. Organise your notes so that they reflect how the ideas were connected in the original text.

4. Write down important points that you identi, in short form, using words, phrases and abbreviations. Underline important words. You can either use common symbols and standard abbreviations (such as ‘e.g’, ‘&‘ ‘etc.’ and ‘yr’) or create your own (such as ‘engg.’ and ‘tech,’). A list of common abbreviations is given at the end of this section.

5. Drop all articles, prepositions, conjunctions and pronouns unless they are necessary in order to understand the notes. Use dashes to link ideas.

6. Use diagrams and tables in your notes to summarise information and present it in a condensed form. One can take notes quickly by using abbreviations. Some common abbreviations are listed below.

& or + — and
= — equals, is the same as, results in
? — does not equal, is not the same as, does not result in
~ — is approximately equal to, is similar to
> > — leads to, produces, causes
? — uncertain, possibly, unproven
approx — approximately
argu — argument
btwn or b/w –between
conc — conclusion
content — continued
dey — development
duff — difference
e.g. — for example
esp — especially
etc — and soon
i.e. — that is
imp — important
Info — information
vs — against
w/ — with
w/o — without

Sample note-making Formates

Read the short passage below.

There are different forms of environmental pollution. Air pollution is caused by the burning of coal and oil. It can damage the earth’s vegetation and cause respiratory problems in humans. A second type of pollution is noise pollution. It is the result of the noise of aircraft and heavy traffic.

Further, loud music is also a cause of noise pollution, which has been seen to affect people’s hearing and give them severe headaches and high blood pressure.

Another source of pollution is radioactivity, which occurs when there is a leak from a nuclear power station. Radioactivity is a deadly pollutant, which kills and causes irreparable harm to those exposed to it. Land and water pollution is caused by the careless disposal of huge quantities of rubbish, sewage and chemical wastes.

Pollution of rivers and seas kills fishes and other marine life and also becomes the cause of water-borne diseases. Land pollution, on the other hand, poisons the soil, making the food grown in it unfit for consumption. Let us now make notes on the above passage. Different formates can be used when making notes. You can design a format of your own that suits you best. Here are some common ones.

Environmental Pollution

A. Air
1. cause : burning of coal and oil
2. effect:

  • damage to vegetation
  • respiratory problems in humans

B. Noise
1. cause:

  • noise of sircraft and traffic
  • causes bad headache
  • high BP

C. Radioactivity
1. cause : beak from nuclear power station
2. effect:

  • causes injury
  • kills

D. Land & Water

1. cause : careless disposal of rubbish/sewage/chemical wastes
2. effect:

  • water pollution – kills manine life causes water – boxne diseases
  • land pollution – poisons the soil makes food grown inedible

A Visit of Charity Questions and Answers & Summary by Eudora Welty 3

A Visit of Charity Questions and Answers & Summary by Eudora Welty 4


The functions of universities have steadily increased over the centuries and today they have to play a variety of roles. They are first, to foster the spirit of free inquiry and promote independent and critical thinking, second to be a repository of knowledge, responsible for its transmission through teaching and extra moral activities, Thirdly to be the place for the pursuit, generation and application of new knowledge.

Fourthly to be the training ground through professionals including doctors, engineers, business managers and administrators fifthly to render service to society, anticipating its needs and assisting in the fulfillment of social and economic objectives. Sixthly to promote values and assist in the promotion of culture and traditions.

Title : The functions of universities

1. To faster the spirit of …………….
a. Free inquiry
b. Promote independent critical thinking

2. To be a repository of ……………..
a. Knowledge

  • Teaching

b. Know transmission through

  • Extra mutual activities

3. To be the place of ……………..
a. the pursuit
b. generation
c. application of new knowledge

4. To be training ground for competent professionals
a. doctors
b. engineers
c. business managers
d. administrators

5. To render services to society in …………….
a. anticipating its needs
b. assisting in its fulfillment of
1. social
2. economic objectives

6. To promote and assist in the presentation of …………….
a. culture
b. traditions


Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar (1891 – 1956) also known as Baba Saheb was born in Ambavade in the Ratnagiri District of modern day Maharashtra. An indian nationalist, Dalit leader and a Buddhist revivalist. Dr. Ambekar was among the first untouchables to obtain a college education in India.

He even travelled abroad from where he obtained his Doctorate degree (Ph.d). He was a prolific writer, commentator and scholar. He was one of the architects of the India constitution. In fact, the was the chaitman of the constitution drafting committee. He was also independent India’s first law minister.

Title : Life History of Dr. Br. Ambedkar
1. Birth
a. Born in 1891

2. Place
a. Ambavade in Ratnagiri District
b. Maharashtra

3. Known as
a. Baba saheb
b. Bhim Rao Ambedkar

4. Educational qualification
a. First untouchable to obtain college education in India
b. Doctorate degree from abroad.

5. Talents
a. Prolific writer
b. Commentator
c. Scholar

6. Titles
a. Indian nationalist
b. Dalit leader
c. Buddhist revivalist

7. Position
a. Architect of the Indian constitution
b. Chairman of drafting committee
c. First law minister.

8. Kept in menageries since roman times
a. For exhibition in zoos and circuses
b. Zoo’s world wide cooperation in breeding the enangered Asiatic subspecies.

Soft Skills

Time Management

Time management is planning and making the best use of the time effectively. We have to know what task we are doing and plan according to that We have to be very organized in using our time then we have to prioritize our tasks with goal setting and scheduling our work. A time management system Is designed combination of processes, tools, techniques and methods. It is usually a necessity in any project development. Here are few tips for time management

  • List out your tasks that is to be done according to their importance and urgency.
  • You have to be very organized.
  • Use to do lists, mobile phone reminders.
  • Do not let others to disturb you, when you are doing some work really important.
  • Be punctual.
  • Be patient and supportive
  • Have a positive attitude, when there are delays.

The following are a list of suggestions on how to manage your time better:

  • Set Goals : This can be either private (pursuing a hobby or taking a family vacation) or professional (completing a project or preparing a presentation for a meeting), but having goals encourages you to manage your time well so that on the day of an event you are prepared and not over helmed.
  • Keep a to-do-list : This will allow you to keep track of your goals and ensure you do not miss any deadlines.
  • Manage your distractions : Nowadays it is remarkably easy to lose track of time by browsing the Internet, watching television, or messaging your friends. You must be responsible and make sure that while working you do not get distracted. Do not procrastinate.
  • Remember to relax : Working long hours at a stretch can sometimes be unproductive. Set aside some time to relax, as a break can be refreshing, and might allow you to develop a new perspective on an old problem.

Value Orientation

Time and Tide Wait For No One

The expression ‘time and tide wait for no one’ emphasises the idea that since people are incapable of stopping or slowing the passage of time, it makes sense they should use their time wisely to prioritise those tasks which are most important to them. Time is very precious and demanding thing by everyone. It costs us a lot as once it goes never comes back It runs regularly for every moment and never stays even for a second. Time destroys those who destroy the time.

Lost time never returns to us. So we should use it properly in tight direction. We should be conscious always to make the best use of time we have. Opportunities come to our way with time however do not knock the door ail time. In the same way we cannot stop the tide to occur in the sea; it occurs whenever it has to come. In the same way, we cannot stop or stop the time for further use, it runs continuously without any stoppage. It runs on its own axis without waiting for the orders of anyone.

In a lesson that discusses the concept of time management, this is a particularly relevant expression. Opportunities do not always come by, and missing one might mean never getting the saine chance again. Dr. A.PJ. Abdul Kalam, former president of India, is credited with saying, if you want to leave your footprints on the sands of time, do not drag your feet.

The famous roman catholic nun and missionary, Mother Teresa, said, ‘Yesterday is gone. Tomorrow has not yet come. We have only today. Let us begin. Both emphasise the idea that time is valuable and should not be wasted. Perhaps the best approach is to think of time as a resource.

You can choose to take advantage of that resource and use it constructively to meet personal or professional goals, or you can waste it by procrastinating and doing something unproductive. In the world of business, pioneering entrepreneurs understand the importance of this statement. Steve Jobs, the co-founder and former CEO of Apple used to say, Your time is limited, so don’t waste it living someone else’s life. No matter what, time will proceed.

A Visit of Charity Summary in English

Eudora Welty (1909 – 2001) was an American short story writer. Her literary career take off with the publication of her first story. She was a prolific author and wrote stories in multiple genres. The action of ‘A Visit of Charity’ is deceptively simple. Marian, a young Campfire Girl, reluctantly visits an “Old Ladies’ Home” to gain points for her charity work.

While there she meets two old women, one who chatters on in an obsequious way and another, old Addie, who confined to bed, resents the little girl’s visit as well as her own babbling roommate. When Marian leaves the home, she retrieves an apple that she hid before entering and takes a big bite out of it.

It tells the story of fourteen your old Marian and her visit to an Old Ladies ‘Home’ Marian is in a youth – development organisation in America called Campfire, and one of her duties, which will earn her extra points is to visit a home the elderly. During her visit, she reluctantly spends time with two elderly, ailing women, and they discovers they live in cold, uncomfortable rooms and suffer from extreme lonliness.

Marian panicks at the sight of their grief and instead of consoling them, flees. The story portrays how the meaning of ‘charity’ has changed from caring for and trying to help others, to trying to earn points or keeping up appearances. It makes readers contemplate the motives people have for performing acts of charily, as even the nurse – who is expected to be compassionate is different to the elderly women’s sufferings.

The basic theme of the story is suggested by the obvious irony of the title, for Marian’s visit is not one of true charity, but rather a formal, institutionalized gesture. From the beginning of the story, Marian does not think of the two old women as people. I like herself. She not only is aware of the strangeness of the old ladies, but she also has become a stranger to herself. Thrown out of her familiar world, where she intensely feels her difference from the old ladies and thus her own separation and isolation.

As Marian enters the home, the bulging linoleum on the floor makes her feel as if she is walking on the waves, and the smell in the building is like the interior of a clock. When the mannish nurse tells Marian that there are “two” in each room, Marian asks, “Two What?” The garrulous old woman is described as a birdlike creature who plucks Marian’s hat off with a hand like a claw, while old Addie has a “bunchy white forehead and red eyes like a sheep”; she even “bleats” when she says, “who-are you?” Marian feels as if she has been caught in a robber’s cave? The author conveys through the story the inhumane treatment in nursing homes. The nursing home lacks amenities for elderly people.

The condition of the room is comparable to a jail-small, wet, dark, and closed door. A nurse acts more like a jail guard than a compassionate professional. Welty portrays Marian is an individual person or as a whole society that is insensitive to the welfare of elderly people.

People in society was used to living in their own comfort zones and neglect the inferior lives of unfortunate people. The story uses Campfire girls who pay visits to the nursing home for self-benefits as a mirror of the selfishness and dehumanization of society in reality. The epiphany of Marian in the story is actually a symbolic of reader’s awareness of human difficulties.

A Visit of Charity Summary in Telugu

మానవ సందంధాలను చిత్రించే కథా రచయిత్రిగా గన్న Eudora Welty అమెరికాకు చెందిన వారు. ప్రస్తుత కథ, ‘ధార్మిక సందర్శన’ దాతృత్వం వెనుక దాగిన స్వార్థ ఉద్దేశాలను బహిర్గతం చేస్తుంది. వ్యక్తుల, సంస్థల దురుద్దేశపూరిత కార్యక్రమాలను ఎండగట్టడంలో రచయిత్రి విజయవంత మవుతుంది. వర్ణనలు సవివరంగాను, కథనం ఆసక్తికరంగాను ఉన్నది.

దాతృత్వం గురించిన గంభీర ఆలోచనలోకి నడిపిస్తుంది కథ పాఠకులను. 14 సంవత్సరాల మరియన్ కథలో ప్రధాన పాత్ర. క్యాంప్ఫైర్ పేరున నడిచే ఒక యువజన అభివృద్ధి సంస్థలో కేవలం మార్కులు పొందటానికే ఒక వృద్ధ మహిళల ఆశశాన్ని సందర్శిస్తుంది మరియన్, అక్కడ ఆమె ఇద్దరు వృద్ధ, వ్యాధిగ్రస్త మహిళలను సందర్శిస్తుంది.

వారు ఇరుకు, మురికి, చీకటి, తేమగా ఉన్న గదిలో నివసిస్తున్నారు. ఇదంతా చూసిన తరువాత కూడా మరియన్ దృష్టి ఆమె పాయింట్ల మీదనే. ఆ వృద్ధి మహిళలకు కొన్ని నిముషాలైనా ఓదార్చును అందించాలనే ప్రయత్నం కూడా చేయదు. దాని బదులుగా ఆకస్మికంగా, త్వరగా అక్కడి నుండి పరుగు పెడుతుంది. ఈ విధంగా మరియన్ సందర్శన ఉద్దేశ్యం బహిర్గతమవుతుంది. అక్కడ పనిచేసే నర్స్ కూడా వారిపట్ల పూర్తి నిరాసక్తతతో ఉంటుంది.

OU Degree 2nd Sem English Study Material

OU Degree 2nd Sem English Study Material Notes Syllabus

OU Degree 2nd Sem English Study Material

Osmania University Degree 1st Year 2nd Sem English Study Material

  1. A Visit of Charity by Eudora Welty
  2. Benaras by Aldous Huxley
  3. Stanzas Written in Dejection, Near Naples by PB Shelley
  4. Shakespeare Retold Julius Caeser by William Shakespeare

OU Degree 2nd Sem English Syllabus

SHORT FICTION: “A Visit of Charity” by Eudora Welty— PRONUNCIATION: plosives— GRAMMAR: non-finite verbs—VOCABULARY: simile and metaphor— SPELLING: use of ‘ie’ and ‘ei’— PUNCTUATION: semicolon— CONVERSATION: asking for advice/information— READING: Hyderabad city: the heart of Telangana— WRITING: note taking and note making— SOFT SKILLS: time management— VALUES: “Time and tide wait for no one”

PROSE: “Benaras” by Aldous Huxley— PRONUNCIATION n: fricatives— GRAMMAR: adjective— VOCABULARY: oxymoron and hyperbole— SPELLING: use of ‘able’ and ‘ible’— PUNCTUATION: colon and long dash— CONVERSATION: making/accepting/refusing a request— READING: Burrakatha— WRITING: informal letter— SOFT SKILLS: leadership— VALUES: “The pen is mightier than the sword”

POETRY: “The Sun is Warm” by PB Shelley— PRONUNCIATION: affricates and nasals— GRAMMAR: articles— VOCABULARY: portmanteau words, loan words— SPELLING: use of ‘-ic’, ‘-ive’, ‘-ity’, ‘-al’ ‘-ance’, ‘-ence’— PUNCTUATION: hyphen and long dash— CONVERSATION: Conducting a meeting/seeking opinion of team members— READING: Cultural identity of Telangana— WRITING: formal letter— SOFT SKILLS: stress management— VALUES: “Practice makes one perfect”

DRAMA: An extract of Act III, Sc 2 from Julius Caeser by Shakespeare— PRONUNCIATION: Lateral, frictionless continuants, semi vowels— GRAMMAR: adverb— VOCABULARY: palindromes— SPELLING: changes of spelling from noun-verb-adjective-adverb— PUNCTUATION: inverted commas— CONVERSATION: Appearing for a job interview/conducting a job interview—READING: Handicrafts of Telangana—WRITING: business letter— SOFT SKILLS: etiquette and grooming— VALUES: “Necessity is the mother of invention”

OU Degree 1st Sem English Unit 1 Vocabulary, Grammar

OU Degree 1st Sem English Unit 1 Vocabulary, Grammar

OU Degree 1st Sem English Unit 1 Vocabulary, Grammar

Vocabulary : Word Roots

Word Roots: Most words can be broken down into smaller units that have some meaning of their own. For example, the English word ‘unable’ can be broken down into two smaller units: un (meaning ‘not’) + able (meaning ‘can be done’).

The smallest meaningful unit that forms the main part of a word is called its root. Words grow from their roots. In the above example, the root of the word ‘unable’ is able. From the word root able, words such as ‘enable’ (en + able), ‘portable’ (port + able), ‘disability’ (dis + able + ity), and many others can be formed.

The roots for many English words were borrowed from Greek and Latin words. For example, the word ‘biology’ is composed of two simple roots – bio (‘life’) + logy (‘science’ or ‘study’) – that have been derived from Greek words. The resulting English word biology is therefore the ‘study of life’.

Some roots can be independent words by themselves in English (bio, graph), while many others are not (logy, chrono). Roots combine with each other in various ways to form standalone English words: biology, biography, chronology, chronograph’
OU Degree 1st Sem English Unit 1 Vocabulary, Grammar 3

Exercise 1.

Identify the roots of each of the following words.
1. Genetic – gene
2. Paragraph – graph
3. Predict – dict
4. Uncountable – count
5. Airport – port
6. Dictator – dict
7. Admit – mit
8. Photon – photo
9. Telemetry – tele

Exercise 2.

Write down at least two words formed using each of the given roots. The meanings of the roots are given in brackets.

1. Phones (sound) – telephone, phonology
2. Pater (father) – paternal, paternity
3. Voc (to call) – vocabulary, invocation
4. Temp (time) – temporal, contemporary
5. Mono (one) – monopoly, monotony
6. Act (to move or do) – activate, proactive
7. Alter (other) – alternative, alteration
8. Aqua (water) – aquatic, aquarium
9. Multi (many) – multitude, multi-purpose
10. Therm(heat) – thermometer, thermostat
11. Cent (hundred) – century, centenary
12. Astra (star) – astronomy, astrophysics

Exercise 3.

Pick out five words from the poem ‘in the Bazaars of Hyderabad’ or from the story
‘The Eyes are Not Here.’ Transform each of the words you have chosen into a different word by changing a root. For example, word: tele (meaning ‘far’) + phone (meaning ‘sound’).

Change the root phone to pathy (meaning ‘feeling’). New word formed: telepathy.
1. Disability – dis+able+ity — New word formed: Inability
2. Chessmen – chess+men — New word formed: chess master
3. Wristlet – wrist+let — New word formed: bracelet
4. Displayed – dis+play+ed — New word formed: discovered
5. Sensitive – sense +true — New word formed: senseless

Grammar: Nouns

Noun: Noun are the names of persons, places, things, actions and concepts. These are called naming words, or more spcifically, nonuns.

Types of Nouns
Nouns may be classified in many different ways. In this unit, we will look at to ways of categorising them: as proper and common nouns, and as countable and uncountable nouns.

i. Proper Noun: A proper noun is the name of a particular person, place or thing. They are always written with a capital letter. For example, Manmohan, Sri Lanka, Osmania University, Nobel Prize, Deccan Chronicle, TajMahal, Mars, Kannada, Hou.

ii. Common Nouns: Common nouns are all other nouns that are not categorised as proper nouns, They may refer to concrete objects, abstract ideas or actions. For example, person, country, institution, award, newspaper, mausoleum, planet, festival, independence, flattery.

iii. Countable nouns: A useful way of categorising nouns is making a distinction between countable and uncountable nouns.

iv. Uncountable nouns: Countable nouns consist of things which can be recognised and counted as individual items. They usually have a singular and a plural form. For example, book, books; mouse, mice; person, people. Uncountable nouns consist of substances (such as materials, liquid, powder) not usually considered as their individual components. For example, salt, cotton, sand. They may refer to a category of things (for example, furniture, information, baggage), or to abstract concepts (for example, youth, danger, beauty).

Countable nouns Uncountable nouns
‘A or an can be used in front of them: them: a person, an ant. A’ or ‘an are usually not used in front of milk, cotton. (When a or an is placed before an
uncountable noun, its meaning usually changes: ‘paper = material, but ‘a paper = a newspaper.)
Have a plural form: ant → ants. Do not have a plural form.
Numbers can be used with them: two people, four ants. Numbers are usually not used in front of them: a little milk, some cotton.
To quantify, we ask ‘How many?’ To quantify, we ask How much?

Uncountable nouns can be made countable by adding a suitable countable noun + of. For example, a few bottles of milk; a spoon of salt; five kilos of rice; several bowls of soup.

Exercise 1.

Identify the nouns in the following passages. Also say whether each noun is a proper or a common noun, and if they are countable or uncountable.

Question 1.
Our sun is, in fact, a rather unimportant member of a huge system of stars, or galaxy, consisting of at least a hundred thousand million stars. We can see a part of this galaxy stretching across the sky as a pale white band of stars called the Milky Way. In India it is sometimes called the Heavenly Ganga.
sun- proper noun & uncountablenoun
member-common noun & countablenoun
system-common noun & countablenoun
stars-common noun & (un)countablenoun
galaxy-common noun & (un)countablenoun
part-common noun & countablenoun
sky-proper noun & uncountable noun
band-common noun & countablenoun
Milky Way-proper noun & uncountable noun
India-proper noun & uncountable noun
Heavenly Ganga-proper noun & uncountable noun

Question 2.
‘In the Bazaars of Hyderabad’ is a popular lyric by Sarojini Naidu which romanticises the common man’s pursuits and aspirations. The setting here is the crowded marketplace of Hyderabad, and the poem seems to be a dialogue between the customers and the vendors of the bazaars. The poem invokes the rich colours, smells, sounds, and tastes of a rich and varied cultural milieu. The poem also has a political backdrop. During the freedom struggle, the Congress launched the Swadeshi movement, urging Indians to boycott cheaply manufactured British products and to rely on Indian bazaars. The colonial administration had banned the publication of Indian newspapers and Naidu cleverly used her poems to propagate these ideas.
Bazaars – common noun & countable noun
Hyderabad – proper noun & uncountable noun
Lyric-common noun & countable noun
Sarojini Naidu – proper noun &uncountable noun
Man – common noun & countable noun
Pursuits – common noun & countable noun
Aspirations – common noun & countable noun
Setting – common noun & countable noun
Marketplace – common noun & countable noun
Poem – common noun & countable noun
Dialogue – common noun & countable noun
Customers – common noun & countable noun
Vendors – common noun & countable noun
Colours – common noun & countable noun
Smells – common noun & countable noun
Sounds – common noun & countable noun
Tastes – common noun & countable noun
Milieu – common noun & countable noun
Backdrop – common noun & countable noun
Struggle – common noun & countable noun
Congress – proper noun & uncountable noun
Swadeshi movement – proper noun &uncountable noun
Indians – proper noun & countable noun
Products – common houn & countable noun
Administration – common noun &uncountable noun
Publication – common noun & countable noun
Newspapers – common noun & countable noun
Ideas – common noun & countable noun

Question 3.
In class today, we read the touching story of a conversation between a blind narrator and a girl he met during a train journey. The twist at the end successfully conveyed the Irony of the situation to the reader- both the narrator and his co-passenger had lost their sight, but were able to
successfully mislead each other!
class – common noun & (un) countable noun
story-common noun & uncountable noun
conversation-common noun &uncountable noun
narrator-common noun & countable noun
girl-common noun & countable noun
journey-common noun &uncountable noun
twist-common noun & countable noun
end-common noun & countable noun
irony-common noun &uncountable noun
situation-common noun &uncountable noun
reader-common noun & countable noun
co-passenger- common noun & countable noun
sight-common noun & uncountable noun

Exercise 2.

Quantify the following uncountable nouns to make them countable.

For example, jam-a jar of jam
1. Coffee – a cup of coffee
2. Bread – a loaf of bread
3. Wood-a log of wood
4. Money – a lot of money/some money
5. Butter – a tin of buffer
6. ChocoLate – a cake of chocolate
7. Juice- a tin of juice/ a jar of juice
8. Information – a piece of information
9. Glue – a bottle of glue/a tube of glue
10. Petrol – a litre of petrol
11. Sugar – a kilogram of sugar! a spoonful of sugar
12. Chips – a pocket of chips
13. Toothpaste – a tube of toothpaste
14. Detergent – a cake of detergent
15. Luggage – an item of luggage
16. Cable – a bundle of cable

Speaking : Getting Someone’s Attention And Interrupting

Here are some other expressions you can use to interrupt or get someone’s attention:

Pardon me… — I’m sorry, but…
Pardon the interruption, but… — Are you free for a minute?
I hate to interrupt you, but… — Have you got a minute?
I don’t want to interrupt you, but… — Could I just ask…?
I’m sorry to interrupt you, but… — Excuse me, but…
Could I interrupt…? — Sorry to butt in, but…
Excuse me, but do you have a moment? — Sorry, but could I ask you a quick question?

Here are some other expressions you can use when someone else interrupts you:
Yes? — Not at all.
That’s all right. — Yes? What can I do for you?
No problem. — Of course.
Sure — It’s not a bother.

Dialogue 1 (formal)

Razia wants to get the attention of her science teacher, who is in the staff
room correcting examination scripts.

Razia — Excuse me, ma’am. I know (that) you’re busy, but may I speak to you for a moment?
Teacher — Yes, Razia? What can I do for you?
Razia — It’s about the chart for the science exhibition. Can I make one with pictures of what a healthy diet should include?
Teacher — I think that’s a good idea. Razia. The chart will look attractive with pictures.
Razia — Thank you, ma’am, Sorry to have bothered you.
Teacher — That’s all right.

Dialogue 2 (formaI)

Manjula needs to deliver a message to the principal, who is in a staff meeting. She stands at the door of the staff room to get his attention.

Principal — (noticing Manjula at the door) Yes, Manjula, what is it?
Manjula — Sir, sorry to interrupt, but someone’s come to see you. He’s from the Board of Intermediate Education.
Principal — Thank you, Manjula. Please tell him l’ll’be coming in a minute. He could wait in my office.
Manjula — Yes, sir.

Dialogue 3 (formaI)

Roopa interrupts two strangers talking to each other at a bus stop.

Roopa — Pardon me, but could you tell me which bus goes to the railway station from here?
Stranger — 47 B.
Roopa — Thanks. I’m sorry, I interrupted your conversation.
Stranger — That’s okay.

Dialogue 4 (informal)

Veena is among her friends. Something occurs to her suddenly and she butts into the conversation to ask a question.

Veena — Just a minute. Does anyone know if Mrs Sharma is leaving for Allahabad tomorrow?
Naresh — I think she is.
Veena — Thanks. I need to send a packet for Sunder with her. Sorry, what were we talking about? Oh, yes, the movie …

Dialogue 5 (InformaI)

Lubna walks up to her friends who are chatting over coffee in the canteen.
Lubna Sorry, am I interrupting? I came to ask if some of you could come to
the college on Sunday. We need people to help us decorate the place for
the Independence Day celebrations.
Tony Sure, we can come. What time?


Try the following role-play activities to improve your speaking skills.

Question 1.
Enact Dialogues 1-5 with a partner, taking turns to play the role of the person interrupting/trying to get someone’s attention, as well as that of the person responding to the interruption.
Question 2.
Form groups of four or five. Your teacher will give each group ten minutes to prepare brief dialogue based on any two of the following situations.
Situation 1:

You interrupt an office meeting to inform one person about an urgent phone call.
Hrushi : Excuse me, Sir! I’m sorry to interrupt you, but there’s an urgent
phone call to a member of the meeting.
Manager : Thát’s all right. Whom is the phone call related to?
Hrushi : Sir, it’s related to Mr M. Raghuram.
Manager : I see. Mr Raghuram, please go and attend the meeting.

Situation 2:

You approach a group of strangers who are engaged in conversation, and ask one of them what time it is.
Raju : Excuse me, but do you have a moment?
Stranger : Yes? What can j do for you?
Raju : Could you please tell me what time it is?
Stranger : It’s not a bother. It’s 11:30 AM.
Raju : Sorry to have bothered you. Thank you very much, Madam.
Stranger : That’s okay. Pleasure is mine.

Situation 3:

Two teachers are talking to each other. You interrupt their conversation to ask one of them about a project submission deadline. Remember to greet both teachers!
Gnanika : Excuse me, Madams! Am I interrupting, Madams?
Teacher : Not at all. What can I do for you?
Gnanika : Could you please tell me the last date for submission of the project?
Teacher : Of course. It’s 25 December 2021.
Gnanika : Thank you very much, Madam. I’m sorry I interrupted your conversation.
Teacher : That’s okay.

Situation 4:

A man is reading a book in a bus station. You ask him for directions.
Supraja : Excuse me, Sir! I understand that you’re busy with your reading, but may I speak to you for a moment?
Man in the Bus : Yes. How can I help you?
Supraja : Could you please tell me the way to the Railway station from this bus station?
Man in the Bus : Sure. First, go straight till you reach the Ambedkar statue, then take Left turn and proceed for about 200 meters; and then take right turn. You will see the Railway station arch in front of you!
Supraja : Thank you very much, Sir. I’m sorry I interrupted your reading newspaper.
Man in the Bus : It was nothing important.

Post Reading: Creativity

Creativity : Creative or innovative thinking is the kind of thinking that leads to new insights, novel approaches, fresh perspectives, and new ways of understanding and conceiving things. The products of creative thought include some obvious genres like music, poetry, dance, dramatic literature, inventions, and technical innovations. But there are some not-so-obvious examples as well, such as ways of framing a question that expand the horizons of possible solutions, or ways of conceiving of relationships that challenge presuppositions and lead one to see the world in imaginative and different ways.

Creativity is an effective resource that is latent in ail people and within all organisations. Creativity can be nurtured arid enhanced through the deliberate use of tools, techniques and strategies. Critical and creative thinking are the two most basic thinking skills. Critical thinking is a matter of thinking clearly and rationally. Creativity consists of coming up with new and relevant ideas. To be a good and an effective thinker, both kinds of thinking skills are needed, Creativity can be divided into two kinds.

One is cognitive creativity that is involved in solving problems. The other Is aesthetic creativity relating to artistic creation. For many people, creativity is something reserved for scientists or artists. We need to make use of our creativity whether we are thinking about how to earn more money or how to make our loved ones happier. Many people also seem to think that creativity is a matter of waiting for inspirations. However, creativity is not a passive state of mind.

  • New ideas are composed of old elements.
  • Not all new ideas are equally good.
  • Creativity is enhanced by the ability to detect connections between ideas.

Some Cretive Techniques

i. Koinonia

Incredible breakthroughs have often taken place through simple, open and honest conversation. Socrates developed principles of infra-group communication. The participants of a discussion were bound by seven principles to maintain a sense of collegiality. Socrates called these principles koinonio meaning ‘spirit of fellowship’. These were:

  • Establish dialogue
  • Listen carefully
  • Exchange ideas
  • Clarify your thinking
  • Don’t argue
  • Be honest
  • Don’t interrupt

Socrates believed that the key to establishing dialogue is to exchange ideas without trying to change the other person’s mind. This is not the same as discussion which, from its Latin root, means to ‘dash to pieces’. The basic rules of establishing dialogue were ‘Don’t argue’, ‘Don’t interrupt’, and ‘Listen carefully’. To clarify your thinking you must first suspend all untested assumptions. Check your assumptions about everything/everyone with an unbiased view. Say what you think, even if your thoughts are controversial.

ii. Idea File

Idea file Maintain extensive idea files to stimulate new perspectives. Mark Twain once replied to an interviewer ‘All ideas are second hand, consciously or unconsciously drawn from a million outside sources and used by the garnerer with a pride and satisfaction born of the superstition that he originated them. A creative mind recognises the essential merits and attributes of a good idea and can adapt them in new contexts thus creating a new idea. You may realise that the entire idea applies or only one procedure or only small portion of the idea applies. Try modifying the ideas. Ask:

  • What can be Substituted? (Who else? What else? Other ingredient? Other process? Other power? Other place? Other approach? Can you change the rules?)
  • What can be COMBINED? (How about a blend, an alloy, an assortment, an ensemble? Combine units? Combine purposes with something else? Combine appeals? Combine ideas?
  • What can I ADAPT from something else to the idea? (What else is like this? What other idea does this suggest? Does the past offer a parallel? What could I copy? Whom could I emulate?)
  • What can I MAGNIFY? (What can be added? More time? Stronger? Higher? Longer? Extra value? Extra features? Duplicate? Multiply? Exaggerate?)
  • What can I MODIFY or change? (What can be altered? New twist? Change meaning, colour, motion, sound, odour, form, shape? What other changes can be made?)
  • Can I put the idea TO OTHER USES? (New ways to use as? Other uses if modified? Can you make it do more things? Other extensions? Other spin-off? Other markets?)
  • What can be ELIMINATED? (What to subtract? Smaller? Condensed? Miniature? Lower? Shorter? lighter? Omit? Streamline? Split up? Understate?)
  • What can be REARRANGE!? (What other arrangement might be better? Interchange components? Other pattern? Other layout? Other sequence? Transpose cause and effect? Change pace? Change schedule?)
  • Can it be REVERSED? (Transpose positive and negative? How about opposites? Turn it upside down? Reverse roles? Consider it backwards? What if you did the unexpected?)

Is your Idea crazy enough? The playful openness of creative geniuses is what allows them to explore ‘interesting’ chance events. In genius there is patience for the odd and the unusual avenues of thought. This intellectual tolerance for the unpredictable allows geniuses to bring side by. side what others had never sought to connect)

Situational Analysis

Question 1.
Show how you can be creative in the following situations:
a. in a kitchen: We all know that kitchen is the place for cooking. However, I prefer to change.the ambiance of the place by placing a music system there. By doing so, I can make it a place of peace and soothing power. I will also make sure that the old melodious songs available, since my mother loves such songs. It will enhance my mother’s happiness. In this way I make my mother’s kitchen work less strenuous.

b. writing an Informal invitation: Writing invitation is an art. But writing an informal one is challenging. instead of writing the invitation on the mobile phone, I prefer to collect the old post cards to write the invitation and send them to my friends and relatives. I hope that this old method of invitation would bring the golden old memories to my invitees.

c. trying to protect yourself from getting wet in the rain: One day when I was returning from my college on foot, it started raining heavily. Unfortunately, I forgot to carry my umbrella on the fateful day. But I did not forget to carry my mind’s ideas!

When it started raining, I looked for a shelter nearby, but in vain. Then I searched for something to protect myself from getting wet in the rain. There I found a green teak free. I collected its leaves and made the umbrella of leaves by stitching them with small twigs. Under its cover, I protected myself from the rain.

d. entertaining yourself when you are alone in an open ground with only two trees: In the afternoon of last Sunday,l went to the Municipal Ground hoping that my friends would come there, as regularly we meet there by the time. However, due to inexplicable reasons they did not turn up leaving me there all alone. I waited there for at least two hours with the hope of their arrival. After having felt bored, I stared to talk to the two frees standing nearby.

I imagined that they were like human beings talking to me and replying to my question. I asked them if they would like human beings for their role in the destruction of forests. Naturally, they replied negatively. Then I asked them about their finding of any good quality among humans. I was dumbstruck when I heard a chorus from them, “Planting sampling!”

Question 2.
List five situations where you can use creativity to present yourself better and say what measures you would take to do so.
a. Preparing a collage of a poem you read: I love reading poetry and I equally love painting the poems that I read in the form of collage. Taking inspiration from the great painter-cum-poet Rabindranath Tagore, I try to paint collages based on the themes of the poems.

Firstly; I collect different colours and brushes of all sizes. Of a good quality canvas is taken for the purpose. Then I look at the theme of the poem from different perspectives and draw mind maps. Next I allocate varied colours for different ideas and start applying a melange of colours on the canvas.

b. Waiting for a guest at the railway station when the train is late: Last week I happened to visit the railway station to receive a guest who was travelling by train. Since the train was late for hours together, I started feeling bored. However, in order to kill the boredom, I started to make a survey of the railway station which is hundred years old!

When I looked into the foundation stone which read “15.08.1918”, I was agape with surprise. With growing curiosity, I noted down the important architectural features of the building and observed that it was constructed in Indo-Arabic architecture. I wish I would bring my classmates to the station on a tour! ‘Suddenly, my guest touched my shoulder!

c. Cooking a special dish for your beloved parents on Sundays: Sunday is my favourite day, of course, it is every body’s favourite. Not that it offers free time but that it provides an opportunity to cook a special dish to my beloved parents’ When I get up I ask my mother and father to tell me what they want to have for their breakfast, lunch and supper.

I note down ail the food items and the required ingredients for cooking. I even browse YouTube channels for assistance in preparing some special food items. When the dishes are ready for eating, I invite my parents to the dining table. It gives me immense pleasure and satisfaction when they eat the food items prepared and served by my own hands.

d. Playing cricket when you are all alone: Cricket is my favourite game. I always love playing it. It requires someone to play with, since ¡t is a team sport. But it is difficult to me to get some people to either bowl or bat. One day I was all alone in my house and found no one to play cricket.

I got an idea of hitting the bell against the compound wall and hitting ¡t again when it returned. I played cricket on my own single handedly’ I took precaution that the ball would not bounce too high or too low. This solo play of cricket enhanced my concentration.

e. Speaking at the farewell party: Of late I have developed the fear of public speaking, especially speaking on the stage before large audience. Last year when the college farewell party was approaching, t was both eager to speak on the occasion and scared of stage. ¡ had sleepless nights before I decided to kill my fear.

I started thinking about the ways of dispel the fear and develop public speaking skills. I met my English lecture for some tips; I listened to hundreds of speeches on YouTube as models; and started getting on to the stage in the classroom. After a couple of months of constant practice, I went on to the stage of college auditorium speak fluently on the day of Farewell party. I never forget the day of killing my fear of public speaking.

OU Degree 1st Sem English Study Material