Benaras Questions and Answers & Summary by Aldous Huxley

OU Degree 1st Sem English – Benaras Questions and Answers & Summary

Question 1.
How does Huxley connect the incident of the bull and the beggar to the rest of his essay? Expand your answer by elaborating on Huxley’s reflections.
Aldous Huxley is an English writer of international reputation. His Brave New world is the most popular of his works. His non-fiction works are remarkable for his critical insight into human behaviour. His style very impressive and offers the readers a pleasant experience as they go through his works.

The present piece ‘Benares’ narrates his personal observations in that holy city. It was on a solar eclipse day. That particular eclipse was visible only in a far-off place Sumatra. But people in India had an eye of faith. They were able to see the eclipse from Benares. They believed that a demonic serpent would try to swallow the sun.

They hoped that their antics and rituals in the sacred river would help the sun to win over his enemy. For that prayer, they walked for miles. They didn’t mind dirt, fifth, fatigue etc. They forgot their hunger. Millions of them plunged into the river at the appointed hour. They performed various rituals which the author describes as antics.

The lanes and bylanes were lined up with beggars. The bowls in front of them had grains of rice offered by charitable pilgrims. A bull appeared there from under an arch. It noticed a beggar dozing. It put its muzzle in the sleeping beggar’s bowl and ate all the rice in it. Then it went off the way it came.

This is just a common incident. But the seeing eye of Huxley picked up a valuable point there. Intelligent and thinking men were behaving in an irrational way. But the mindless bull acted in a sensible way. It shows the value of reason, pragmatism and following nature’s lessons. The bull’s incident appears to be simple. But it conveys a valuable lesson. The writer’s arguments are convincing. They serve like an eye-opener.

Question 2.
Describe the arrival of the princesses in your own words.
Aldous Huxley’s experiences in Benares were varied. His keen eye caught even microscopic detail. His artistic hand describes those details in an impressive way. The writer rowed along the ghats for about two hours. Some of the ghats were considered unsacred by people. They were, therefore, less crowded. To one such thinly crowded ghats came a palanquin.

It was canopied and covered with curtains of gold. It was carried carefully to the edge of the river by six red-liveried attendants. A head attendant was leading them. A barge, beautifully decorated and windows curtained, was floating there at the edge of the ghats.

The palanquin was slowly put down. A canvas path was quickly created from the entrance of the palanquin to the door of the barge. Then the palaquin’s doorway was opened. About half a dozen princesses came out of it and entered the barge. They did not have the freedom to watch around. They were not allowed to seen by others either.

After the barge floated to the mid-river the poor princesses removed the window curtains. They looked around freely. Even they looked at the writer’s camera. They were not permitted to take a holy dip in the open river. They were restricted to bath in the bilge water of the barge. Water in the open river itself was filthy.

One can well imagine how filthier the stagnated bilge-water would be! The royal ladies were less fortunate than their poor but free common women. The writer feels pity for them. Even the reader is moved to join the writer in sympathising with the caged-bird like ladies from the palaces.

Question 3.
What, according to Huxley, should be our attitude towards religion? Why?
Aldous Huxley is known for his humane approach. His writings reflect rationalist outlook. He believes in religion. But he wants it to be free from dogma. He likes faith to help man to advance. He hates religion coming in man’s way towards progress. His thought-provoking essay ‘Benares’ explains his views about religion.

He exposes the Indian’s eye of faith that helps them to see the invisible and non-existent eclipse in Benares. He digs at their belief that a demoniac serpent was about to swallow the sun. He makes fun of their attempt to save the sun from the serpent. He pities the millions of poor, walking for miles, barefoot and with loads balanced on their heads, to offer their prayers for the sake of the sun.

He also sympathises with the ladies of the royal families. He criticises subtly their customs and traditions. He says they were less fortunate than poor people in not being able to take a holy dip in the sacred river. He appreciates the pragmatic practices of the mindless bull. He advises intelligent but sentimental Indians to learn a lesson or two from that innocent animal.

He whole-hearted respects religions. But he is against binding ourselves with blind beliefs. He argues that antics and rituals do not make a religion. The ultimate aim of any religion, he proposes, should be liberation of man, not imprisonment. His conclusion is to be religious with rationality.

Question 4.
What does the author propose for the betterment of India? Do you agree with his views? Give reasons for your answer.
Aldous Huxley advises indians to be more rationalistic and less superstitious. He asserts that religion is a luxury which india cannot afford in that condition. He is surprised at indian’s immense energy being wasted in antics and vituals. He urges us to channelise into development programmes. His advice, if followed, is bound to liberate India from many vices.

I do fully agree to Huxley’s suggestions for India’s betterment. He was born in England. But he is more an Indian than the most patriotic Indian national in his concern for the welfare of India. He feels pity for the poor of India. He sympathises with them. He is sad as he notices barefoot old men and women walking for miles on dusty roads with loads balanced on their heads. His concern for lack of basic freedom to royal ladies also touches the readers. He appreciates the sensible behaviour of the mindless bull.

He asks sentimental Indians to learn from the innocent animal. He appeals reason to prevail upon religion. He see that reasoning ability in the bull. Now it is the turn of indians to see a point in the bull’s approach. Huxley admits that they respect their church. He quickly adds that their devotion never crosses the reasonable limits. He exhorts Indians of all faiths to follows their example. He expresses his willingness to arrange funds for the mission of establishing reason in india.


The Fricative is a type of consonant sound made when air escapes from a narrow passage in the mouth, causing friction and a hissing sound. Fricatives have a looser construction in the mouth, which allows friction to be produced at the point of contact. There are nine fricatives in English. Four pairs and /h/ constriction between the lower lip and the upper teeth (labio-dental); /f/ is voiceless.
They are /f/, /v/, /θ/, /∂/, /s/, /z/, /f/, /3/, and /h/


Transcribe the following words using IPA symbols and underline the common fricatives in each set.
Benaras Questions and Answers & Summary by Aldous Huxley 1



Any word speaking about the noun or showing quality of the noun is called adjective.
Adjectives are qualifying words they describe noun or noun phrases.
An adjective describes some aspect of a noun or a pronoun when an adjective is describing a noun, we say it is modifying it.

Adjectives of Quality

It describe feelings or qualities, state nationality or origin; tell us about a noun’s characteristics, age, size, shape or colour, indicate what something is made of; and express judgements or values. They can be used in the following ways:

a. before a noun — Samera is a voracious reader.
b. after a ‘be’ verb — The movie was fabulous.
c. after the verbs appear, — She appears dull in that dress.
become, fell, get turns,
tastes, smells, sounds.
d. without nouns — The homeless (i.e., homeless people. need our help.

When adjectives are written one after another, there is an order in which they are placed.
Benaras Questions and Answers & Summary by Aldous Huxley 2


Choose the right order of adjectives from the given options.

Question 1.
Jitendra lives in the ______ house down the street.
a. pink, new, big
b. big, new, pink
c. new, big, pinki
b. big, new, pink

Question 2.
The sunday market offers all kinds of ______ objects
a. fascinating, old, antique
b. old, antique, fascinating
c. old, fascinating, antique
a. fascinating, old, antique

Question 3.
I was delighted to receive a _____ dairy from my pal.
a. large, beautiful, Leather-bound
b. leather-bound, large, beautiful
c. beautiful, large, leather-bound
c. beautiful, large, leather-bound

Question 4.
His clown costume consists of a red nose, over sized shoes, and a jacket.
a. tight, polka-dotted, satin
b. polka-dotted, satin, tight
c. polka-dotted, tight, satin
a. tight, polka-dotted, satin

Question 5.
My sister has a ______ dog
a. black, big, scary, Alsatian
b. big, black, scary, Alsatian
c. scary, big, black, Alsatian
c. scary, big, black, Alsatian

Present and Past Participles of verbs can also be used as adjective.

Participle Ending Adjective function Example
Past – ed describes how people feel I was amused by the article
Present – ing describes what causes a feeling It was an amusing article

Fills in the blanks with adjectives formed using the present and past participles of the verbs in brackets.

1. It was a boring book. I was bored by the book. (bore).
2. This film is frightening. I was frightened while watching it. (frighten).
3. I felt annoyed after I ran into him. That man is very annoying. (annoy).
4. It is an interesting topic. I am interested in learning more about it (interest).
5. I am tired because I’ve had a tiring day. (tire).

Adjectives of Quantity

Adjectives of quantity indicate the amount or number of the noun.
e.g. There are four apples in the basket. We need many more.


Choose the appropriate word as adjective from the options provided.

1. There isn’t much sugar in the pot. (much/many).
2. Tanya has very few options left. (little/few).
3. Rohan brought some food with him. (some/many).
4. I have little faith in Amar. (little / less).
5. People buy fewer newspapers these days. (fewer/less).
6. Do you have any further plans? (further / farther).
7. I ran pretty for yesterday, but I ran even farther today. (farther/further).
8. Of the two shirts, I prefer the latter (later/latter).
9. Sonia arrived at the party later than srinivas did (later/latter).
10. The people in the photo are Raju, Sonu, and Manu, The last is my brother (last/latter).

4. a. Comparative Degree : When we compare two people, places, etc., and say that a quality is not present equally in the two, we use the comparative degree of the adjective. The comparative form is always followed by ‘than’ (except in case such as inferior to and superior to.

  • Your pencil is longer than mine.
  • The flower is more beautiful than its picture in the book.

b. Superlative Degree
When three or more things, animals etc., are compared and they have a particular quality in unequal measure, we use the superlative degree of the adjective. The superlative form always has the definite article ‘the’ before it.

  • Your pencil is the longest of the three in the box.
  • The flower is the most beautiful of all those found in the region.


Adjective Comparative Superlative
good/well better the best
bad/ill worse the worst
little less the least
much/many more the most
far farther/further the farthest/the furthest
simple simpler the simplest
important more important most important
small smaller the smallest

Fill in the blanks with adjectives formed from the words given in the brackets.

1. This is the most fascinating story I have ever read. (fascination).
2. Non-smokers usually live longer than smokers. (long).
3. A holiday by the sea is better than a holiday in the mountains. (good).
4. Today was the worst day of my Life (bad).
5. This is the least of the two evils. (less.

Fill in the blanks with the comparative and superlative forms of the adjectives given in the brackets.

1. My bungalow is larger than hers. My bungalow is the largest in my colony. (large).
2. I am the fastest runner in my school. But my sister can run faster than me (fast).
3. Not only is her handwriting better now, it is in fact the best in her class. (good).
4. This task is important to me. It is the most important task I’ll do this week. (important).
5. I thought the green ones would cost the least, but the red ones cost less (little)


Oxymoron and Hyperbole

An oxymoron is a figure of speech that has two components which contradict one another. It combines words that have opposite or very different meanings.


  • She let out a quiet scream.
  • The design is composed of an ineqular pattern.
  • Parting is such sweet sorrow.
  • He is always idle busy.
  • Act Naturally
  • Pretty Cruel
  • Open secret

An Hyperbole is a figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for effect, but not intended to be taken literally.


  • The suitcase weighed a ton
  • She is as skinny as a toothpick
  • She wept oceans of tears.
  • The sea rose mountain high.
  • He has tons and tons of money.
  • He is stronger than lion.
  • It is an age since we met.


Underline hyperbolic expressions in the sentences given below.

1. We had to wait forever for the bus.
2. I have a million things to do.
3. I could sleep for a year.
4. It was the most amazing sight ever.
5. I am so hungry I could eat a horse.
6. I’ve told you a hundred times to wash the dishes.


Words ending in ‘-able’ or ‘-ible’
Words ending with – able and – ible are usually adjectives and mean ‘capable of’ or ‘suitable for’.

enjoyable — able to be enjoyed
edible — suitable for eating
readable — capable of being read
reversible — capable of being reversed

The base word in words ending in – able is generally easily identifiable such as the word ‘adapt’ in adaptable and ‘bear’ in bearable, although there may be exceptions. If the base words ends with an ‘e’, it is usually dropped before adding the suffix, such as in the words debatable (from ‘debate’). and adorable (from ‘adore’).

The base word in words ending in -ible may not be easily identifiable, as in the ‘-ase of words such as ‘horrible’ and ‘feasible’. However there are many exceptions to this ‘principle’ such as accessible (from) ‘access’. and flexible (from ‘flex’).


Complete the following words using the suffixes – able or – ible.

1. Permissible
2. Bearable
3. Breakable
4. audible
5. collapsible
6. movable
7. illegible
8. advisable
9. acceptable
10. responsible
11. inflatable
12. eligible
13. incredible
14. navigable
15. reversible
16. preferable
17. justifiable
18. invincible
19. capable
20. negligible


Colon and Em-Dash

1. Colon (:)
The colon (:) is a punctuation mark consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line.
A colon means “that is to say” or “here’s what I means’

Rule 1
Use a colon to introduce an item or a series of items, when listing items one by one.

  • This is what I need : Chart paper, marker pens, some glue, and coloured ribbons.
  • I need an assistant who can do the following: Input data, write reports, and complete tax forms.

Rule 2
An explanation

  • The reason he gave was this : he had not listened to the instructions carefully.
  • He got what he worked for: he really earned that promotion.

Rule 3
A quotation

  • The host made an announcement: ‘Theparty is over’.
  • Dad often said to me: “Work hard, be honest, always show up on time”.

Note : While a semicolon links two balanced statements, a colon leads from one statement to the other.


Punctuate the following sentences by using, necessary, capitals and all the punctuation marks you have learnt so far.

Question 1.
you may be required to bring many things sleeping bags pans utensils and warm clothing.
You may be required to bring many things: sleeping bagas, pans, utensils, and warm clothing.

Question 2.
I want the following items butter, sugar and flour.
I want the following items: butter, sugar, and flour.

Question 3.
I need an assistant who can do the following input data write reports and complete tax forms.
I need an assistant who can do the following: input data, write reports, and complete tax forms.

Question 4.
he got what he worked for a promotion.
He got what he worked for a promotion.

Question 5.
I am soaking wet I forgot my umbrella.
I am soaking wet: I forgot my umbrella.

2. em-dash (—).

The em dash is perhaps the most versatile punctuation mark.
1. It is used is pairs within a sentence, to mark off paranthetical information or ideas –
e.g: Thousand of children – like the girl in this photograph – need your help to survive.
2. To break off a statement without completing it.
e.g: I think it would have been better if –
3. To show other kinds of breaks in a sentence, usually represented by a comma, semicolon, or colon.
e.g: One thing’s for sure – he doesn’t want to face to truth.
Note: Dashes are more informal, relaxed and conversational in style. They are common in informal writing, such as in personal e-mails or blogs, but it is best to use them sparingly in formal writing.


Punctuate the following by using, wherever necessary, capitals and all the punctuation marks you have learnt so far.

Question 1.
my son where has he gone
My son – where has he gone?

Question 2.
Things have changed a lot in the last year mainly for the better.
Things have changed a lot in the last year – mainly for the better.

Question 3.
All four of them vani kusum anu and priya did well in college.
All four of them – Vani, Kusum, Mu, and Priya – did well in college.

Question 4.
How many times have I asked you not to payan suddenly stopped talking and stood up.
‘How many times have I asked you not to -‘, Payan suddenly stopped talking and stood up.

Question 5.
Chocolate strawberry vanilla all ice cream tastes good, especially on a hot summer’s day.
Chocolate, strawberty, Vanilla all-ice cream tastes good, especially on a hot summer’s day.



When we are asking some one for something, we need to be polite and courteous. In the English language requests are made in the form of questions, and we use modal auxiliaries such as can, could, will, would, may, might to frame them. We also use the words please, sorry and thank you when we make or respond to requests.

Making a Request

  • May I borrow your pen, please?
  • Could I borrow your pen, Please?
  • Would you mind lending men your pen, please?
  • Would you be so kind as to Lend me your pen, please?
  • Could you please do me a favour?
  • Can you do me a favour, please?
  • I was wondering if you could do me a favour.
  • Will you please come with me to the doctor?
  • Do you think you could possibly come with me to the doctor?


  • Would you ……. and could you ……….. are more polite and formal than will you …….. and can you ……..
  • Indirect requests such as I wonder if you could lend me your pen are more formal than direct requests such as could you lend me your pen.
  • Adding expressions such as I’m sorry to bother you, but .. to a request makes them more polite.

Agreeing to a Request

  • (May I borrow your pen, please?) Yes, of course./Yes, please do./Certainly./Sure, no problem.
  • (Would you mind lending me your pen, please?) Not at all.
  • (Can you do me a favour, please?) Of course, by all means.
  • (Will you please come with me to the doctor?) Sure; I’d be glad to help.

Declining a Request

  • (May I borrow your pen, please?). No I’m sorry. I need it.
  • (Could you lend me your pen, please?). I wish I could have, but I don’t have it with me.
  • (Would you mind lending me your pen, please?). I’m afraid I can’t
  • (Could you please come with me to the doctor?). I’m sorry, I can’t. I’m very busy today.
  • (Could you please tell me the way to the station?). I’m afraid I don’t know. I’m sorry.


  • If a request Is framed as Would you mind …., you can respond positively using the expression not at all, which means ‘I do not mind’.
  • When refusing a request (No, I’m sorry., it is considered polite to give a short explanation for denying the request (I need it/I don’t have it with me/I’m very busy today).
  • I’m afraid is an expression used to politely introduce bad news or disagreement.


Based on the hints given, frame a polite request, as well as a polite response (either positive or negative, as indicated).

1. A : Would you please help me with my homework?
B : (negative). I’m sorry, I can’t. I got some urgent work.

2. A: Would you mind helping me with my homework?
B: (positive). I do not mind/Not at all

3. A : Will you please give me your car?
B: (negative) No. I’m sorry. I need it.

4. A : Do you mind to lend me your car, please?
B: (positive. I wish I could have, but I don’t have it with me now.

5. A : These boxes are too heavy. Could you please help me to carry them?
B: (negative. I’m sorry. I can’t. I’m very busy now.

Reading Passage

Burrakatha : an Oral Narrative Performance

Burrakatha is an art form in which stories are told by performers on a stage. It is part of the katha traciflon. It is named so because of the use of burra which is shaped like a skull made out of baked clay, copper, or dried pumpkin. This art form is found in the villages of Telangana, Rayalaseema and Andhra Pradesh.

It is called as Tamburakatha or saradakatha, in Rayalaseema, it is called as Tandanakatha or suddulu and in the coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh, It is called as Tamburakatha or Saradakatha, in Rayalaseema, it Ís called as Tandanakatha or Suddulu and in the coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh, it is called as Jangamkatha.

Burrakatha began in the form of songs sung by Nomadic tribal people who move from one place to another place for their livelihood. it is said that the ancestors of one of such tribe were cursed by the goddess parvati to live a difficult life. They are known as the Jangam tribe. In the 20th century, these tribes were greatly influenced by a saint called Basava of kamataka and adopted Virashaivism as their religion.

Their performance consists of a story told by a team of two or three people who belong to the same family. The main storyteller of the performance is known as the kathakudu who wear anklets and metal rings on their fingers to produce music as they dance.

He narrates the story to the accompaniment of music produced by the tambura. The other performers assist in telling the story, playing small drums called gummeta or budike, and playing the role of homourists (hasyakas. or political commentators (rajakiyas..

Burrakatha is mostly performed during Dussehra and Sankranti in the evenings.
They begin with devotional songs before the kathakuda introduces the story. The stones performed tend to be based on history or mythology, particularly of the great epics the ramayana and the Mahabharata.


Informal Letters

Informal letters are written to friends, family and relatives. Their tone is informal and the style of language used in these letters is casual and conversational. These letters could be about your home, family, friends, relatives, work or about something interesting that happened to you.
The block format is the preferred modem style for writing both formal and Informal

Letter. All entries are aligned to the left margin. The various parts of an informal letter are as follows.

1. The Sender’s Address:  The complete address of the letter writer must be given if the letter is written to a person for the first time, or if there is a change in the address of the writer. It can be written on left hand comer or at the right side.

2. Date:  The date should be written in the sequence data, month, and year, as in ‘14 November 2016’.

3. Salutation : It is always written at the left hand margin of the page, followed by a comma.
The salutation is usually in form of ‘Dear’, ‘My Dear’, suggests intimacy and can be used only for relatives or close friends. Friends can also be addressed by their names.

4. Body of the Letter : The body of an informal letter is usually longer than that of a formal letter, and is written is as many paragraph as required by the content. The first paragraph contains greetings and general enquiries. The actual content of the letter is covered in the second paragraph in free and spontaneous language.

5. Complimentary Close : It is placed the body of the letter. The most commonly used closing phrases in letters to very close friends and relatives are, ‘Yours lovingly,’ Yours affectionately’,  ‘Your loving’.

6. Signature : It comes below the complimentary close, and the fîrst name of the person is written instead of the complete name.

Sample -1.

Anita Shinde
Flat No. 301, Bluebird Aprts
15 September 2016
My dear Jo,
I’m so glad to hear that you have joined a new company in Bangalore as Head of Human Resources. You were looking for a change and I’m sure
that the new company you’re working for now will give you the mileage you were looking for. Your daughter must be excited, too, as educational opportunities in Bangalore are better than those in the town you were in earlier. I think your husband has to make some adjustments with his work to join you. How about planning a get-together in Hyderabad during a weekend next month? We could meet our other college friends. Once you get comfortable with your relocation, let me know the dates convenient for you. I’ll take up the responsibility of coordinating with the others. We will certainly have a blast!
Convey my regards to your husband and love to your daughter.
Yours affectionately,

Sample -2.

As Bhushan Bose, write a letter to your friend, inviting him/her to your brother’s wedding.
Banjara Hills,
Road No. – 12, Hyderabad,
14-November-20 16
My Dear karan,
Hope everything is fine with you. It’s been two months that I was not incontact with you, as J was busy in marriage preparations. No, do not get me wrong, I am not getting married, but its my brothers wedding. Finally he’s getting settled with the girl of his choice. I am not getting married, but its my brothers wedding. Finally, he’s getting settled with the girl of his choice. I am extremely happy to invite you with your whole family, as my brother’s marriage is on 28th, Nov 2016 at Tivoli Gardens, Secunderabad at 7 pm. I have invited all out friends and we will have a great time. Karan come at least two days before in advance. Waiting for your arrival.
Bye and Take care.
Yours Lovingly,


Question 1.
You have decided to start organic farming in your hometown after acquiring prestigions MBA degree from a reputed university. Your best friend is unsure if the choice you are making is a good one. Write a letter to him/her justifying your decision and also underlining the dignity one can derive from getting into a occupation like agriculture.
Date : 29, Nov 2016
Dear Rai,
How are you? I am fine. I have gone through your letter and have come to know about your decision to start organic farming in your hometown. I felt very happy one way, but other side I feel that acquiring a prestigious MBA agree from a reputed university and again choosing agriculture as your occupation seems to be little doubtful.

You were always topper in the college and you got a very good placement in cognizant too. I am not sure whether the decision you have taken is best or not. But I know you are clever enough and your decision is always rights. It is good on a part that you feel like to develop your own hometown in the field of organic farming.

You can also help many poor farmers in this way. Really you are great and I am very happy to have a best friend like you. Convey my regards to your parents. May God bless you in all whatever you choose to be in life. Take care, bye.
Yours Affectionately
Sagar Gupta

Question 2.
Write a letter to your cousin who lives in another town, inviting her/him to stay with you during dussehra.
H.No. 4-9/2,
Salaj nagar,
Karim nagar
Date: 18 Sep 2016
My dear Nikhil,
Many thanks for your letter. I was very pleased to learn that your school remain closed for a week on account of Dussehra. It will be very kind of you come over here during these holidays. We shall all have a nice time, have plenty of fun, laughter and sight-seeing.

As you know that Dussehra here is celebrated with gusto. The effigies of Rayana is made with great labour, it is quite big in size and every care is taken to keep intact his ancient character. The fireworks fixed in the effigies are very powerful and their deafening noise is an experience unheard of anywhere else.

Besides enjoying the Dussehra celebrations, we will go together sightseeing. The caves and the small mountain hills are a big attraction for tourists: Convey my regards to uncle and aunt. Bring them along with you. Elders will have their fun too. Hoping to hear from you soon.
Your loving brother

Question 3.
Write a letter to your parents who do not believe in your decision of having an alternative career option and want you to get into the family business immediately after your graduation.
D.No. 77/7
Date: 18 Nov 2016
Dear dad and mom,
How are you? I am fine by the grace of God. How about grandparents? I would like to share few of my feelings with you regarding my career option. Naturally every parent wants the best for their child, and they want to see their children settle in good carrers.

I know it is your desire to make me a businessman taking care of the family business. Being in city Like Hyderabad, I have come to know about so many job opportunities to settle well in the Life and take care of the family. Actually we had campus selections in our college, luckily I got a job in one of the top most company Infosys.

I am going to get a very good package too. I have decided to join the company after graduation. Hope you understand my passion to be placed in such a famous multinational company. As lam not interested in business, I may not do justice to the profession. I know you are so loving and wanted me to always be in a good position.
Take care of your health.
Your loving son

Soft Skills


Leadership skill is a soft skill which is an ability to motivate others towards achievement of a common goal. They are the skills required to effectively motivate and lead a group of people or an organisation. Leadership is important to handle any internal or external changes in the environment, incomplete organizational structure, motivate and inspire people towards achieving a common goal. Employers are constantly on the lookout for those exhibiting such skills.

The following are some of the personality traits of a leader.

1. Communication: This trait determine how effectively you interact with others in and outside the organization. Only through open communication can a leader coordinate with his or her co-workers and delegate tasks, monitor progress, address issues, help, inspire, and ensure deadlines are met.

2. Self-Confidence: Leader are often expected to make difficult decisions. In order to do so they must have faith in their choices and must be confident in their own skills to such an extent that they can motivate those they supervise.

3. Honesty : In order to maintain a company’s integrity, leaders must be honest and ethical, ensuring co-workers never to do things they might be uncomfortable doing. This trait shows how loyal and honest you are towards the organization.

4. Fairness : A leader will have to assign projects to co-workers. This means that she/he must understand the strengths and weakness of her/his co-workers and then delegate tasks fairly, in a diplomatic and objective manner. Doing so will help resolve any potential work issues.

5. Positivity : Focussing on the positive and always looking for solutions can result in a leader inspiring co-workers. Leaders must thus strive to be good role models.

6. Adaptability: This skill shows how well you adapt yourself to changing situation and priorities.

7. Alertness : It shows how active and alert you are in different situation.

8. Problem solving : This skill is treated very important as this determines how well you solve any problem.

Value Orientation

The Pen is Mightier Than the Sword
The pen is mightier than the sword mean that communication is far more effective, influential and powerful than weapons or violence. Writing can instill a number of emotions within a reader, joy, grief, love, anger, jealousy etc. This is a powerful means by which many who have wielded a pen have been able to connect with a large audience and trigger massive changes.

The power of pen is enormously larger than a sword. What a sharp edged sword can’t achieve can be achieved by the help of a minute tip of a pen. What it implies is that the power of writing is much stronger than the power of hatred, war, and fighting. The pen is usually linked with writing. It helps the writer to record his thoughts on paper. Sword is a weapon used forcefully against someone. A sword can be wielded well only by those who are physically fit.

But words can flow from the pen of even a feeble man. If he is a good writer, he can use the words to their desired effect. Many great writers had inspired revolutions. The French revolution for example was the result of the writings of great French writers like Rousseau. Writings can evoke different emotions as love, hatred, sympathy etc. It is something that is to be regarded with awe and respect. Hence pen is a mightier device than the word.

Benaras Summary in English

Aldaus Huxley in his essay ‘Benares’ presents satirically the disillusionment in social life. This essay mirrors the empty lines of the Hindus and their loss of the old cultural values. The glance at the middle class conventional morality is scaring and pitiless, while the mass literacy of the crowd becomes an obsession.

Huxley mocks at the corrupting influence of religion on Hindus. The story of the essay is woven round the legend of solar eclipse and the superstition that the sun is swallowed up by the monster serpent. The essay opens with the description of the gathering of millions of Hindus on the bathing ghats along the river Ganges in Benares (now Varanasi)

The people coming from rural areas through previous night and day are seen marching bare footed in an endless procession with bundles of provisions, cooking utensils, dried dung or fuel and new clothes mounted on their heads. While women are portrayed as walking in a trance in fatigue, men are seen taking rest under the wheels of passing animal driven vehicles. On the day of the eclipse and at one of the less crowded ghats,a princess is seen descending from her palanquin from behind the glittering curtain with all her royal robe.

So that the princess could take bath due to passing boats and for fear that she will be shot by the writer’s camera. A row of priests are also seen the day of solar eclipse a little distance away. They are seen sitting on narrow ledges above the water “cross-legged, their hands dropped limply, palm upwards, on the ground beside them, they contemplated the brown sweating tips of their noses.

He concludes the essay by advising Indians of all religious persuasions to assemble to save India rather than assembling and wasting their energies over superstitions. Despite his derisive tone, Huxley’s fascination for the place and the rituals is very apparent.

Benaras Summary in Telugu

ఆల్డస్ హగ్జలె ప్రపంచ్ ప్రఖ్యాత, నవలా, వ్యాస, కవితల, నాటక, విమర్శల మరియు సంభాషణల రచయిత. Brave New World, Eyeless in Gaza and Ape and Essence లాంటి వారి రచనలు విశ్వవ్యాప్త ఆదరణ, అభినందనలు పొందినవి. ప్రస్తుతం వ్యాసం ‘బనారస్’ ఒక సూర్య గ్రహణం రోజున ఆ పవిత్ర నగరంలో రచయిత స్వీయ పరిశీలనలను వివరిస్తుంది.

రచయిత తన అనుభవాలను అతి సూక్ష్మ వివరాలతో సహా చిత్రిస్తున్నారు. లక్షలాది బీద భారతీయులు కాశీ ఇరుకు వీధులలో, సందులలో ప్రయాణించడం, మురికి బజారులు, వెడల్పెన కాని అపరిశుభ్ర ఘాట్లు, దీర్ఘ చతురస్రాకార చితులు శవాలను దహించడం ఒక్క చిన్న వివరం కూడా ఆయన దృష్టి నుండి తప్పించుకోలేదు.

సుమత్రా లాంటి సుదూర ప్రాంతాలలో సంభవించే సూర్యగ్రహణనన్ని, గ్రహణం అసలు కనిపించని చోటైన బనారస్లో ‘చూడగల’ భారతీయలుల ‘శక్తి’ పట్ల రచయిత ఆశ్చర్యం వ్యక్తీకరిస్తున్నారు. ఒక దుష్ట సర్పం బంధం నుండి సూర్యుడిని కాపాడాలనే భారతీయుల కోరికను ఆయన విమర్శిస్తున్నారు. రాజ కుటుంబ మహిళలకు నదిలో పవిత్ర మునక వేయుటకు సామాన్యులకున్న స్వేచ్ఛ లేకపోవటం పట్ల సానుభూతి ప్రకటిస్తున్నారు.

కునుకు తీస్తున్న బిక్షకుడి గిన్నెలోంచి కొన్ని బియ్యం తినే అవకాశాన్ని సద్వినియోగం చేసుకొన్న ఒక ఎద్దు యొక్క ఆచరణాత్మక దృక్పథాన్ని అభినందిస్తున్నారు. ఆలోచించలేకున్నా అర్థవంతంగా ప్రవర్తించిన ఎద్దు నుండి తెలివి ఉండి చాదస్తంగా ఆలోచించే భారతీయ మనిషి గుణపాఠాలు నేర్చుకోవాలని వ్యంగంగా సూచిస్తున్నారు రచయిత.

అన్ని మతాలకు చెందిన భారతీయులకు ఆయన మనఃపూర్వక అభ్యర్థన చేస్తున్నారు తార్కికంగా, అర్థవంతంగా ఆలోచించమని, భారతావనిని బీదరిక, నిరక్షరాస్య, అజ్ఞాన, మూఢనమ్మకాల బంధాల నుండి కాపాడుటకై ఒకది కమ్మని! ప్రతి ఒక్కరిని ఆలోచించేలా చేస్తుంది ఈ వ్యాస పఠనానుభవం. భారతీయులకైతే అత్యంత విలువైన గుణ పాఠాన్నందిస్తుంది!

OU Degree 2nd Sem English Study Material

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