Stanzas Written in Dejection, Near Naples Questions and Answers & Summary by PB Shelley

OU Degree 1st Sem English – Stanzas Written in Dejection, Near Naples Questions and Answers & Summary

Question 1.
What is the tone and mood of the speaker of the poem?
The theme and tone of the poem by Percy Shelley are two separate, but linked, concepts. The theme of the poem are rejection, love, union and disappointment as they can be beautifully represented through nature. Because of the rejection and disappointment in love, the poet feels rejected and hurt. He feels he is the victim in this situation and the love he feels for another is unwanted.

The title states that the poet was writing these stanzas in a state of dejection. The poem does not state the reason for his melancholy mood. Although the poem begins with beautiful, uplifting descriptions of nature, it ends on a rather sorrow-filled note. Shelley is able to see the beauty of nature, is able to describe it with love and vigour, but when it comes to his own life, he is unable to find even a glimmer of hope.

Question 2.
Discuss shelley as a poet of nature with reference to this poem.
The present poem was written when shelley and his wife Mary visited Naples during winter from November 1818 to February 1819, When the climate was pleasantly warm. The poem Is a description of the way that the poet felt at the time of its composition.

The poem begins with a detailed description of a pleasant natural scene. Shelley describes a beautiful day, probably on the Gulf of Naples, as the poet references “Waves” and winds, the birds, the ocean floods. He sits alone on the sand, observing the sparking ocean and listening to the sound of the waves. How pleasant all this would be if there were someone with whom he could share the emotion he feels.

Unfortunately, Shelley lacks hope, health peace, calmness, contentment, fame, power, love and leisure. He sees others who enjoy all these and find life a pleasure. It is otherwise with him. Death would steal upon him quietly, turning his warm cheeks cold while the waves continued their monotonous rhythm as consciousness grew fainter.

Some might mourn his death just as he will regret the departure of this beautiful day to which his melancholy is in contrast. In this poem, the poet’s state of dejection is artistically placed in a sharply contrasting setting that effectively emphasises the dejection.

Question 3.
What does the poet lament in the poem.
Shelley was suffering from depression due to a number of reasons his first wife had committed suicide; the courts had taken from him the custody of his two children; his poetry was neglected by the public and condemned by the critics; he was plagued by financial problem

He suffered from poor health and his wife, Mary Shelley, was estranged from him following the death of their daughter. In this poem, the poet’s state of dejection is artistically placed in a sharply contrasting setting that effectively emphasises the dejection.

The poem begins with a detailed description of a pleasant natural scene. The poem seems to be a contrast between his own despair and the relative comfort he finds in nature. Shelley contrasts his own feelings of emptiness with what he see as the fullness of others lives. While he is dejected, his feelings are tempered by nature around him. He feels that he could weep and even die here in this setting.

He closes the poem by saying that he may be lamented after his death, but he feels that he will not be missed that much, as he says, “for lam one/whom men love not,” people will regret that he is gone, but the memory of nature, of the day that surrounds him, will only bring pleasure.

Shttley prioritizes the beauty of the natural setting and its ability to yield positive emotions. Those emotions range from ‘joy’ at the end of the poem to the relative comfort. This emotional state appears to be allayed by the nature surrounding him, while the causes for his dejection are related to society.

Question 4.
Comment on the speaker’s complaints hopes and fears. How has the poet tied the end of the poem to its beginning?
Shelley’s poem “Stanzas Written in Dejection, Near Naples” is about depression. The speaker, whom we can assume to be the poet himself, is sitting at the shore watching the light on the water and thinking about his life, actually, feeling a little sorry for himself.

He sees the beauty around him and knows he should be able to appreciate it, but he cannot. He sees people going about their daily business and bemoans that life has dealt him “another measure” so that he cannot take joy in his surroundings.

Yet he admits that his despair is “mild, even as the winds and waters are” and not so consuming that he cannot live. He even thinks he might “lie down like a tired child” and passively wait for death rather than do anything to hasten it. It seems at first as if he may be suffering over a lover, but in this last stanza he appears to be lamenting that he is not well-known and appreciated when he says “ I am not whom men loved not”, and he hopes that someone might lament for and regret his passing.

Annotate the following lines in about 250 words each.

Question 1.
Like many a voice of one delight,
The winds, the birds, the ocean floods,
The City’s voice it self, is soft like Solitude’s.
The Poem and the Poet: The given words appear in the poem “Stanzas Written in Dejection, Near Naples”. They form the last three lines of the first stanza of this lyrical poem. It was penned by PB. Shelley, an English poet of extraordinary poetic skills. Shelley’s love for nature is visible clearly here. The poem proves Shelley’s ability to present precise imagery in an impressive way.

The Context: Shelley was going through a sad phase of his life. He was spending time in Naples, a very pleasant and beautiful port city in Southwest Italy. The sky was clear. The sun was bright. The blue sea was like a crystal. Sea waves were dancing fast. Isles and mountains were glowing. Shelley, the poet’s soul was fascinated. His imagination flew sky high. And the poem flowed down in a flood. The result: a feast to every reader!

The Explanation: Nature was at its best in manifesting itself beautifully. Every element in nature started singing its glory. The wind whistled. The birds chirped. The sea murmered. Naple’s voice echoed everywhere. All voices joined into one. They became one voice of happiness. They sounded soft like the song of solitude. The theme of the song is the beauty of nature. It makes everyone happy.

The Significance: The (ines project the poet as a philosopher and an artist. He suggests that happiness comes from unity and happiness results in unity. He adds that ‘happiness’ has a soft voice always, never a harsh one. He also indicates his preference for loneliness. He appears to tell us that the voice of delight and that of solitude are soft and therefore the one gives the other! Many lessons are there in these lines for the readers to pick up !

Question 2.
Yet now despair itself is mild,
Even as the winds and waters are;
I could lie down like a tired child,
And weep away the life of care
The Poem and the Poet: These thought-provoking and heartrending lines form a part of ‘Stanzas Written in Dejection, Near Naples’. This touching poem was created by. RB. Shelley, a poetic genius born in England. The poet had a flair for writing about nature. And his personal life was misery incarnated. And the artist in Shelley did magic in blending his personal tragedy with nature’s beauty in a balanced manner in his poems. The present poem stands as an example in support of this statement.

The Context : Shelley suffered several shocks in his personal life. He was seeking solace in nature’s lap near Naples. The seashore there was glittering in glory. Shelley was excited. His imagination was ignited. Image after image flowed out. A beautiful painting of nature in words was evolving. Pathetic scenes from personal life flashed in the poet’s mind. He pictured them too. He wove a connecting bond too. The united whole looks artistically integrated.

The Explianation: The poet says that his sorrow has slowly been becoming soft. The winds and the sea too are slowing down. An exhausted infant cries and cries constantly. His stress and suffering are thus swept away. In the same way, the tired poet is trying to forget his painful and pathetic past.

The Significance: The contrast between nature’s beauty and the poet’s personal tragedy is complete. The connecting bond is strong. The poet draws a comparison. The winds and waters are gradually slowing down. So are his personal problems. Equating the poet’s personal condition with a tired child’s position is impressive. The comfort thus he drew is consoling. A child’s innocence and crying away offer solutions to some complicated issues.

Question 3.
Some might lament that I were cold,
As I, when this sweet day is gone,
Which my lost heart, too soon grown old,
Insults with this untimely moan;
The Poem and the Poet: We come across these moving words in the wonderful poem ‘Stanzas Written in Dejection, Near Naples’. The poem is remarkable for its precise images and melodious music. RB. Shelley composed this masterpiece. Born in England, Shelley became famous for his radical ideas.

The Context: Fate shocked Shelley many times. Misfortune greeted him from multiple corners. His country, public, his critics and even his wives were united in troubling Shelley in various ways. He became dejected. He turned to nature. He reached Naples. He derived some comfort there. The seashore there presented him with pleasant sights. He pictured that beauty. He described his pathetic state too. He connected both. Thus Shelley produced this artistic poem.

The Explanation: The poet-philosopher sees his end someday. He visualises someone mourning his death. He doubts their sincerity. He draws an equation between their lament and his lost heart’s untimely moan for the passed sweet day. He gives reason for his heart’s untimely cry. He suggests that the reader should see for himself why someone’s lament is not from the heart.

The Significance: The poet’s stoic acceptance of imminent death is touching. His clear vision of post- death scene is appealing. His humble admission of his lost heart’s untimely moan is moving. His selection of diction is artistic. His mastery of syntax is simply superb. The content and its communication compete with each other in impressing the reader.

Question 4.
……………… this day, which, when the sun
Shall on its stainless glory set,
Will linger, though enjoyed,
like joy in memory yet.
The Poem and the Poet: The given words conclude the beautiful poem “Stanzas Written in Dejection, Near Naples”. A poetic genius with peerless mastery of poet is techniques, RB. Shelly composed this marvellous piece The poem is an example of Shelley’s power to produce images of precision. The poem is also known for it- lyrical quality.

The Context: Shelly was in despair. He lost health wealth, name and finally hope. His first wife committed suicide. His daughter died young. His second wife had strained relations with him. He needed some consolation badly. He sought it in nature. He went to Naples, a city known for nature’s beauty. He projects that beauty poetically. He recollects his gloom too. He draws a comparison between the two. The ‘stanzas’ came out brilliantly.

The Explianation: The poet imagines his end. He describes how others would lament his death. He connects his end to the closing of the day. He says the day comes to a close as the sun sets. Yet the day remains in memory. The beauty is cherished. The memories are preserved. The day might have gone. But the memory of it remains. He seems to wish that he might be remembered long after he is gone.

The Significance: The lines form a fitting end to a wonderful poem. The title refers to the poet’s dejection. It also talks about nature’s beauty near Naples. And these bottom lines reflect perfectly both the ideas. The bond is made strong with these words. The climax is commendable. The poet pays rich tributes to nature’s ability to make man happy. The readers love to offer their compliments to the poet’s skill.


The affricate is a type of consonant sound which combines a plosive with an immediately following fricative articulated at the same point. Affricates are consonants that begins as stops, rather than directly into the following vowel. They are produced by a complete closure of the passage of air through the mouth followed by a slow release such as [t] or [d]. The English affricates are /t∫/ and /dδ/.

Affricate In initial position In medial position In the final position-
/t∫/ champion, check matching, bachelor Preach. Snatch
/dδ/ jug, just adjust, subject ridge, badge

Few more examples
/t∫/ → chance, champs, cheese, crunch, twitch, picture
/dδ/ → jam, jaile just, soldier, budget, judgment


A nasal consonant sound is produced when there is a complete closure of the air passage in the mouth and the air escapes through the nose. Nasal sounds are those sounds that you need to.use your nose to create. There are three voiced nasal consonants in English. The English nasals are

Nasal In initial position In medial position In fined position
/m/ man, must grammar, smooth game, fame
/n/ next, now manage, answer ban, cane
/η/ finger, uncle ring, bang

Few more examples

m : money, – manic – mines
mother – maids – merit
tamed – campo – camps

n : nab – nil – nob
canoe – rance – ranch
fanes – ranks – thin

ng/η/ : bring – ring – swing
wing – lung – sing
thing – sung– king



English language has three articles namely ia’, ‘an’, and the’ Articles are adjectives used before nouns. They are used before nouns to define their use in the context of the sentence. There are two kinds of articles, they are indefinite article: a, an, and definite article: the. In certain instances no article is used before a noun.

A. Indefinite article: ‘A’

1. ‘A’ is used before singular nouns and countable nouns beginning with consonant sounds.
Consonants (b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, w, x, y, z)
eg: He is a teacher
I just ate a pizza.

2. It is used before words such as ‘European’ or ‘University’ where the initial vowel is pronounced like a consonant. Remember, it is the sound and not the spelling which is important.
eg: He is a European
She has a one-rupee coin.

B. Indefinite article: ‘An’

1. ‘An’ is used before singular, countable nouns which begin with vowel sounds.
Vowels (a, e, i, o, u)
eg: He is an actor.
This is an apple

2. ‘An’ is used before a word beginning with a silent/hi Before a singular noun beginning with a vowel sound.
eg: He was late by an hour.
He is an honourable man

C. Definite article: The

1. ‘The’ is used when talking about something which is already known to the listener or which has been previously mentioned, introduced or discussed.
eg: I have a pen. The pen is blue
The stone hit me on back of my leg.

2. It is used before the names of oceans, seas, coasts, rivers, mountain ranges, groups of islands, planets, gulfs, newspapers, magazines, musical instruments directions, deserts, names of trains, hotels, holy books, ordinal numbers and superlative degrees.

eg: The Arabian Sea, The Atlantic ocean, The Western Coast,
The Godavari, The Himalayas, The Andaman and Nicobar islands,
The Earth, The Gulf of Kutch, The Times of India, The India today,
The guitar, The South, The Thar Desert, The Rajdhani Express
The Taj hotel, The Bible, The First, The longest etc.

3. ‘The’ is used before proper nouns for the sake of comparison
eg : Kalidas was regarded as the Shakespeare of India

D. No Article

1. English, some nouns are uncountable
eg: information, air, advice, salt, water, paper, milk, coffee, rice, cloth, wood, etc.

I drink coffee every morning. I also have bread and butter.
Have you had breakfast?


I. Fill in the blanks with indefinite articles where necessary. ‘x’ indicates

No Article.
1. She doesn’t own a car.
2. He came from x humble beginnings.
3. I saw x bears at the zoo.
4. He asked for x milk.
5. She didn’t get an invitation.
6. I saw an eagle fly.
7. She was an English teacher. She taught at a European University.
8. He bought x milk, x butter, and a loaf of bread.
9. The table is made of x wood.
10. Dr. Abdul Kalam was an honest man.

Correct the following sentences by inserting articles wherever necessary.

Question 1.
There is book in my backpack. Book is very heavy.
There is a book in my backpack. book is very heavy.

Question 2.
Do you know where I left car keys?
Do you know where I left car keys?

Question 3.
I enjoy reading detective novels, especially ones by famous author Arthur Conan Doyle.
I enjoy reading detective novels, especially ones by famous author Arthur Conan Doyle.

Question 4.
French drink wine, while Americans drink beer.
The French drink wine, while Americans drink beer.

Question 5.
Group of MBA students from university of Mumbai visited Harvard University in United States.
group of MBA students from University of Mumbai Visited of Harvard University in United States.

Question 6.
Bible was first book to be printed by Gutenberg in fifteenth century.
If Bible was the first book to be printed by Gutenberg in fifteenth century.

Question 7.
I am fond of music of Mozart. My grandfather owns antique piano.
I am fond of music of Mozart. My grandfather owns antique piano.

Question 8.
Cloth is sold by metre. Metre of this fabric cost me moon.
Cloth is sold by a metre. metre of this fabric cost me in moon.

Question 9.
Sun is at highest point in sky at noon.
The Sun is at the highest point in the sky at noon.

Question 10.
After human, chimpanzee is most intelligent among animals.
After humans, Chimpanzee is most intellIgent among animals.


Portmonteau Words

A portmanteau is a new word formed by joining two (or multiple) words and combining their meanings. A portmanteau word fuses both the sounds of the orginal words and the meanings of its components. Here are some examples –

1. advertorial – advertisement + editorial
2. biopic – biography + picture
3. blog -web+iog
4. edutainment – education + entertainment
5. emoticon – emotion + icon
6. internet – International + network
7. malware – malicious + software
8. multiplex – multiple + complex
9. motel – motor + hotel
10. pixel – picture + element
11. romcom – romantic + comedy
12. smog -smoke + fog
13. brunch – breakfast + lunch
14. chunnel – channel + tunnel
15. netizen – internet + citizen
16. workaholic – work + alcoholic
17. telethon – television 4 marathon


A Loanwords is a word taken from a foreign language with little or no change. Here are some examples.

Loanword Borrowed from Present English meaning
avatar Sanskrit manifestation, personification
guru Hindi a spiritual teacher or recognized leader
cafe French a small restaurant selling drinks and snacks
kindergarten German a pre school for children aged 4 to 6
cigar Spanish a roll of tobacco for smoking
vodka Russian a distilled alcoholic beverage
ennui French boredom
bazaar Hindi a market place covered with shops and stalls.
doppelganger German Someone who looks spookily like you or shadow of yourself
hoi polloi Greek ordinary people


Words endig In-aI, – once, -ence, -Ic, -ify, and -ive
The following suffixes are used to form new words –

Suffix Meaning Words
– al of, belonging to, pertaining to acoustical, ancestral, medical
-ance quality, action, state or process appearance, assurance, performance
-ence quality, action, state or process independence, innocence, difference
– ic having the nature of, like antibiotic, logarithmic, stylistic
-ity quality, state ability, maturity, toxicity
-ive tending to, performing addictive, defective, supportive

Complete the following words using the suffixes al, ance, ence, -ic, -ity or -ive

1. iconic
2. confidence
3. dominance
4. avoidance
5. poetic
6. productive
7. capacity
8. acceptance
9. classic
10. insurgence
11. curiosity
12. reactive
13. parental
14. futility
15. rhythmic
16. kinetic
17. national
18. vindictive
19. opacity
20. ambulance


Hyphen (-)
A hyphen is used to:
The hyphen is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word.

Rule 1
Generally, hyphenate two or more words when they come before a noun they modify and act as a single idea. This is called a compound adjective.
Eg: well-known writer
two-year-old child

Rule 2
To Indicate numbers, fractions, measurements when written out.
Eg: inch – long nail
two-kilometre walk
one – third

Rule 3.
To separate certain prefixes from root words.
Eg: trans – American
mid – forties

Rule 4.
To remove ambiguity
Eg: Little – used boat
man-eating shark

1. Do not use a hyphen between an adverb ending in -ly and a verb ending in -ed.
Eg: finely tuned
poorly received
smartly dressed
2. Never use a hypen after ‘very’
Eg: very well dressed


Punctuate the following sentences by using, wherever necessary, capitals, and all the punctuation marks you have learnt so far.

Question 1.
Sushil kumar my mathematics teacher is an absent minded person the day before yesterday he walked into the biology class and started teaching algebra
Sushil Kumar, my Mathematics teacher, is an absent-minded person. The day before yesterday he walked into the Biology class and started teaching Algebra.

Question 2.
sandhya balasubrarnanlum was not only a world famous bharatnatyam dancer but also a leading camatic music vocalist
Sandhya Balasubramanium was not only a world famous Bharatnatyam dancer, but also a leading Camatic music vocalist.

Question 3.
banif abbas a kenyan born runner of indian origin won the 100 metre bronze at the london olympics
Hanif Abbas, a Kenyan born runner of Indian origin won the 100-metre bronze at the London Olympics.

Question 4.
Mount Fuji with its beautiful snow capped peak is a well known japanese icon.
Mount Fuji, with its beautiful snowcapped peak is a well-known Japanese icon.

Question 5.
Dr B.R. ambedkar is regarded as the chief architect of the constitution of india with the adoption of the constitution the union of india officially became the republic of India the indian constitution came into force on 26 january 1950 an event that is celebrated each year as republic day.
Dr B.R. Ambedkar is regarded as the chief architect of the Constitution of India. With the adoption of the Constitution, the Union of India officially became the Republic of India. The Indian constitution came into force on 26 January 1950- an event that is celebrated each year as Republic day.


Conducting a Meeting
Very often, organisations conduct weekly, monthly, quarterly, or special meetings to discuss certain issues and make decisions and/or plans. The steps below are useful guidelines for conducting an effective meeting.


  • Identify the purpose and expected results of the meeting.
  • Identify whether the meeting is conducted for delivering information, sharing information, or collecting information.


  • The agenda is a list of the item issues that are to be discussed in a meeting.
  • Limit the number of item/issues, keeping in mind the time available.


  • Identify and invite only those participants necessary for the meeting.
  • Make sure that every participant has something to contribute with regard to the agenda of the meeting.


  • Decide the date, venue and time of the meeting.
  • Communicate the agenda to the participants at least 24 hours prior to the meeting.

Meeting Principles

  • Request all participants to turn their mobiles off or to keep them in silent or vibrate mode.
  • Disallow any sort of electronic communication during the meeting.
  • Respect the opinion of each participant. Encourage openness among participants.
  • Ask questions to clarify doubts during discussions.

Meeting Facilitator

  • Designate a skilled facilitator who Is aware of the meeting principles and the agenda. This person will ensure that the meeting is conducted in a smooth manner.
  • Rotate facilitators regularly during scheduled meetings.


  • Designate a timekeeper who works with the meeting facilitator to restrict discussions to the time limit.
  • Start and end every section of the meeting on time. Check the time periodically to see whether you are following the time limit scheduled for each item.
  • Allow flexibility in the schedule when the occasion demands.

Conducting the Meeting

  • Open the meeting by announcing the ground rules and the agenda.
  • Cover one item/issue at a time.
  • Invite and encourage everyone to participate and contribute his or her ideas.
  • Do not stray from the planned agenda.
  • Summaries the discussion and recommendations at the end of each planned section.


  • The minutes of the meeting are a written account of what transpired at a meeting.
  • Designate a member to write the minutes of the meeting while discussions go on.
  • Make detailed minutes since this record is important for further follow-up on key issues.
  • Highlight key points for each item and identify the items that are to be discussed in future meetings.

Concluding a Meeting

  • Review the items/issues discussed at the meeting and the resolutions taken.
  • Decide time frames for taking action with those who are responsible for the execution of action plans.
  • Announce the agenda, time and venue for the next meeting.
  • Thank the attendees for their participation.


  • Ask each attendee to evaluate the meeting, either in writing or by using the open discussion approach.
  • Pose questions such as ‘What can we do better next time?’ and ‘What parts of the meeting worked well, or did not work well?’ as feedback for conducting the next meeting.


Sample 1:

Invitation letter for a business meeting – Deepa Kaushik
Date: 17 Dec. 2016

I, Deepa Kaushik, the Managing Director of MNC International Fabric Co. Ltd., call for an urgent land meeting following the sudden cancel of order from one of our major UK clients. This meeting is to discuss the reasons, and the measures to rectify the same.

The meeting will be held at our Aguilla Conference Hall, at 11.00 AM, today, that is 1 hour from now. As you all must be aware that MP Boutiques one of our main clients, have suddenly cancelled the order placed an 1’ March’16 scheduled to be delivered on 6th March’16. understand that we have already completed with the production of the units to be supplied and the packaging of the some Is already under process. Though the tentract was signed as always with this client, that holds.

Just for the 50% cash back for the complete order signed. As per the contract tennis, they have intimated us by 3rd March ‘16 that is by mid of the contract period. So liable to pay only 50% of the signed amount. And we being at a point of packing have almost completed with the order.

Cancelling the order at this stage, counts for a loss of around 1 million for us, which is definitely a huge set-have for the company. We can give a grace period for the payment if they have any financial crunch. I understand we have never delayed any order delivery from our end, or have compromised with the quality of the products. I also hope, the agents, haven’t handled them harshly in this communications.

Be prepared with all the paper works, the contract, the invoices, the communication letters and emails, and all other documents in relation with this client and contract. I look forward to’ some valid explanations for this big loss.

Reading Passage


Bathukamma, the golden pattern
Of chosen blooms piled, cone-shaped!
Gowramma on the
Platform of pumpkin petals!
On the flower-hillock
Golden blossoms offer boons
A fortune line for children.

Different may be the hues
Dissimilar may be the scents
Yet the ripples of soft floral steps
Offer a new kinship
A celebratory gathering of flowers!
And the broken ties getting
Reunited by flower ceremonies!

The flowers kiss the fingertips
Of maidens with glee.
To prepare a Bathukamma,
The damsels become
Arched rainbows of prime youth.
The thangedu flowers vying with
The golden lustre of damsels’ bodies
Bow with humility
In the hands of young dames!

Tender lips are Bougainvilleas
Pearls of smiles are Cunugu flowers
Collyrium lines of eyes are lpomoeas
Descended moonlights are beera blooms
Marigolds mount palanquins of young maidens
Kanakambarams deck decoratively
The plants of young ladies!

Bathukamma is the bloomy veneer
On the body of waters.
Beauties perched on palanquins
Emanate glorious lustre touching the sky.
Bathukamma is a flower-boat
flipping inside our eyes!


Formal Letters

Formal letters deal with affairs of official and public nature, for instance, a letter to a government official, a newspaper editor, a college principal, and so on. The block format is the preferred modern style for writing formal letters. All entries are aligned to the left margin. Follow these rules regarding the structure of the Letter

1. Sender’s Address : It should be written on the top-left comer of the page.

2. Date : The date is placed below the sender’s address eg: 15 April 2016.

3. Inside Address : It is the receiver’s address and written below the line of the date.

4. Salutation : The most common forms of salutation are ‘Dear Sir or Dear Madam, Respected Sir or Respected Madam. If you know the name of the person you can write as ‘Dear Ms Urna Verma’ or ‘Dear Dr Krishna’,

5. Subject : It is a feature of all kinds of official letters. It is a brief statement of the subject of the letter.

6. Body of the Letter : This is the main part of any letter. The contents of an official letter should be brief, clear precise and complete with respect to their information being conveyed.

7. Complimentary Close : Yours faithfully, Yours Sincerely, Yours Obediently (for a student) need to be used for complimentary close.

8. Signature : Official letters must have the full signature, with the person’s name and designation in two separate lines below it.

In Addition to these, some official letters have:

1. Reference numbers : Official letters sent from organisations are assigned numbers that help in having the letters filed according to their subject. This is placed above the sender’s address.

2. Attention Line : This appears above the salutation. It contains the name of the person to whom the letter is to be directed, especially in large organisation.

3. Enclosures: This is placed below the signature line.
For example end.

  • budget for 2016-2017
  • auditor’s report

4. Copies : If copies of the letter are going to other persons, their names are mentioned below the list of enclosures.
Reference number
Sender’s address
Inside address
Attention: ……………………………
Complimentary close,
Signature …………………………………
Full name
Eraclosed :
1. ………………………………….
2. …………………………………..
cc: …………………………………..

Examples of Formal Letters

Question 1.
Letter to a college principal
M. Sharath
III BSc (MPC), Roll 238-011
Government Degree College
15 April 2016
The Principal
Government Degree College
Dear Sir,
Sub: Request for the issue of Transfer Certificate, Bonafide Certificate, and Memorandum of Marks
With reference to the subject cited, I would like to bring to your kind notice that I completed my BSc (MPC) from our college during the academic years 2013- 2016, and passed in the first division. I require my Transfer Certificate, Bonaflde Certificate, and Memorandum of Marks for further studies. May I request you to please issue the above certificates to me at the earliest. I enclosed the necessary challans and’ no-dues certificate for your reference:
Thank you.
Yours faithfully,

Question 2.
A letter to the Inspector of police, Railways
129 Neeti Apartments
Kasturba Nagar
Warangal 506 009
15 October 2016
The Inspector of Police
Warangal Railway Station
Warangal 506 009
Dear Sir,
Sub: Request to trace missing laptop
On the night of 14 October 2016,I was travelling from Secunderabad to Warangal by the Charminar Superfast Express with a lot of luggage in Coach S4, Seat 16. The train departed at 7 p.m. from Secunderabad station. There was a huge crowd of passengers due to the Sankranthi festival. I reached Warangal station by 9 p.m.

To my shock, I found my laptop missing when I checked my luggage. It might have been taken by fellow travellers in the train, as I am certain I did not misplace it. I therefore request you to please take necessary action to trace It. Please treat this as a formal complaint. (hope you will be good enough to make enquiries into the missing laptop.
Thank you very much for your help.
Yours faithfully,

Question 3.
You are Rohit sen of A-2/251, Saket, New Delhi 110017. Write a letter to the manager of the Silver Star, Lasjan, Srinagar 191101, saying that you want to book two rooms for three days for you and your family. Enquire about the rates and avaiability of rooms for the dates of your visit there.
A-2/251, Sket,
New Delhi, 110017
The Manager
Silver Star, Lasjan,
Snnagar, 191101,
Dear Hotel Manager,
Sub : Booking of two rooms for three days at the Hotel.
I wold like to reserve accommodiation for two rooms in your hotel for three days for me and my family. Arrival date will be on 25th, January, 2014 at 6 am. Departure date will be on 28th, January, 2014 at 5 am. I request you to inform me about the availability of the rooms and the rates, so that I will confirm about booking them.
Thanking you
Yours faithfully,
Rohit Sen.

Question 4.
Write a letter to the editor of a local newspaper complaining about the nuisance created by stray dogs in your locality.
Rd. No. 3
Ph No. 3
Ph. No. 8692157210
Email Id :
Date: 23 July 2014
The Editor,
Deccan Chronicle,
Respected Sir,
Sub : Complain about the nuisance of stray dogs. This letter is for the concerned authorities who deal with the complaints regarding the stray dogs. I would like to bring to your notice the nuisance created by stray dogs in the locality of Toli Chowki. As they are increasing in number day by day, children, elderly citizen and common people are unable to come out of their houses.

Yesterday, a six year old boy was bitten by a stray dog. This is a third incident reported in this locality since last two weeks. This situation is unacceptable to many here. Also, street dogs pull the trash out of the garbage bins and scatter all over the street. Foul smell from the carcass of the dead dogs overrun by vehicles is very disturbing. Additionally, dogs bark at odd hours of night continuously. I request the concerned authorities to kindly take some as soon as possible.
Thanking you
Yours truly,


Question 1.
Write a letter to the GHMC Corporator of your locality, complaining about the delay in garbage collection.
P. Shyam
15/2 Siddharth Endave
28 December 2016
The Corporator,
Dear Sir,
Sub: Complain regarding the delay in garbage collection.
IP Shyarn, resident of Balajinagar. In our area there is delay in garbage collection in our area. Atleast for the last suc months this has become a habit. The municipal sweepers do not dean our locality regularly. And even when they appear, they pile the garbage dump in front of our residence. This pile is left here for weeks, this leads to other people to dump all the waste in our area. Due to this, the whole area is filled with unhygienic atmosphere resulting inconvenience, diseases and mosquitoes. So, its my humble request to please take action as soon as possible and help us to get rid from this problem.
Thanking you
Yours Faithfully,
P. Shyarm

Question 2.
Write a letter to the editor of a local newspaper, suggesting that news Items of national and global significance should be given greater importance than celebrity gossip and news of a sensational nature.
Rai Purohith,
H.No. 2-227
Anjanailu nagar,
29 January 2016
The Editor
Andhra Jyothi
Dear Sir,
Sub: Suggestion to give importance to global news.
I am Raj Purohith, resident of Anjanailu nagar, Kakinada. I am a regular reader of your newspaper. I have been observing that lots of importance is been given to celebrity gossip and sensational news in your paper. I feel this sort of news is not of utmost importance which is celebrities personal affair. Instead if you will provide news related to national and global significance coveting will social, economic, political and cultural aspects. Lam sure news of this type will definitely bring awareness in a common man which is very useful now a days. It is just a suggestion from my side. Kindly if you feel my advice to be fine you can bring improvement to the society as a whole.
Thanking you,
Yours faithfully
Rai Purohith

Question 3.
Write a letter giving positive feedback to the coordinator of a personality development course you attended.
Renny Joyce,
D.No. 15-9/2,
Date: 14 Nov. 2016
The Coordinator,
Ramakrishna Math,
Dear Sir,
Sub : Positive feedback for the personality development course.
I, Renny Joyce pursuing B.Tech final year attended personality development course conducted by your institute last week. I was one of the student enjoyed all the classes and learnt a lot from this course. Each and every session was really very inspiring to me. I got motivated by all the topics discussed over there. I kindly request you to do conduct many such programmes so that the young generation may learn to live the life to the fullest.
Thank you sir,
Yours faithfully
Renny Joyce

Soft Skills:

Stress Management
Stress Is the overwhelming feeling when a person undergoes a lot of mental or emotional pressure due to work responsibilities, studies, financial worries, or any of life’s other demands. Stress is a very common occurrence in our modem life.

We are always under many pressures from our family and professional life, it is a long term condition. Stress affects a person’s hormones and body chemistry, which makes him anxious, irritable, angry, depressed low in self-confidence, lethargic or drained of energy or sleepy.

There is no predictable pattern to stress. For some, giving a presentation to a group of co-workers can be stressful, while for others, tight deadlines can be a source of tremendous worry. it is important to recognize the stress producing situation. There is no quick fix for stress. But one has to determine what helps him/her to manage stress best.

Some Strategies to Cope up with Stress

  • Exercising: Have a healthy lifestyle. Sometimes, going for a run or playing a sport with your friends clears your mind and helps relieves stress.
  • Connecting with Loved Ones : Share your feeling with your friend and family. Talking to others might lead to brainstorming and solutions to your problem.
  • Relaxing : Taking time off from work to socialise or indulge in a hobby can make a huge difference in your mental well-being. Getting a solid eight hours of sleep will recharge the body and the mind.
    Avoid unhealthy Habits : Many people use alcohol or smoking to cope, but these habits will deteriorate your health.
  • Meditation : Breathing exercises like pranayama or meditation helps a person to relieve of stress.
  • Find Help : Talk to your general physician if you fear that stress is overwhelming your life, as they will be able to put you in touch with experts who are familiar with stress and capable of alleviating your tension.
  • Manage your time better and organize your task
  • Have a healthy lifestyle including propr diet, exercise and enough sleep.
  • Read interesting books or watch television programmes that entertains you a lot.

Value Orientation

Practice Makes Perfect

Practice makes perfect is a popular expression that emphasises the importance of doing something again and again until you are capable of completing the task in the best manner possible. Every individual learns from their mistakes you will steadily improve. Practice is the act of rehearsing a behaviour over and over, or engaging in an activity again and again, for the purpose of improving or mastering it. Sports teams practice to prepare for actual games.

What is needed in order for a person to be able to master a musical instrument. For e.g : A violinist does not learn to play the instrument after one lesson, but keeps at it, working hard and practicing daily until they master the art. Even then, in order to maintain their fluency, they must practice. The same holds true for sports people as well.

Tendulkar became the ‘Little Master’ only through perseverance, practising in the nets day in and day out for many years. The proverb stresses the importance of continuous practice to learn anything. There is no short-cut to get mastery in a trade, art or sport. Only rigorous practice wilL make a person perfect in any field of activity. Mere knowledge of a thing is not enough to acquire mastery in it. One has to practice it to have mastery over it. Perfection can be achieved only through practice. A child learn things through practice.

We may know a rule in physics or mathematics. But we can have perfection in the subject only when we practice similar examples again and again. ‘Practice makes perfect’ is applicable in the world of academics as well; merit- holders in board examinations achieve such high marks by studying and revising every day so that they have a thorough understanding of the subject. Only through regular practice can you become perfect or proficient in something.

Stanzas Written in Dejection, Near Naples Summary in English

Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792.1822) was an English poet. Born to a wealthy upper class family. His poetry shows a remarkably fine blending of idealistic message, precision of imagery and captivating melody. The poem. “Stanzas written in dejection, “Near Naples” was written when shelley and his wife Mary visited Naples during winter from November 1818 to February 1819, when the climate was pleasantly warm.

It is a description of the way that the poet felt at the time of its composition. The title states that he was writing these stanzas in a state of dejection. The poem begins with beautiful, uplifting descriptions of nature, it ends on a rather sorrow – filled note. He is able to see the beauty of nature, is able to describe it with love and vigour, but when it comes to his own life, he is unable to find even a glimmer of hope.

The day is warm, the sky is clear, the waves sparkle. Blue islands aid snow – topped mountains look purple in the midday light. Buds are ready to blossom. The sounds of the winds, the birds, the waves and of Naples itself blend in pleasant harmony. He sees the seaweed on the ocean bottom and watches the waves dissolve into light as they strike the shore. He sits alone on the sand, observing the sparking ocean and listening to the sound of the waves. But he feels that how pleasant all this would be if there were someone with whom he could share his emotions.

Unfortunately, Shelley lacks hope, health, peace, calmness, contentment, fame, power, love and leisure. He sees others who enjoy all these and find life a pleasure. It is otherwise with him. He would like to lie down like a tired child and “weep away the life of care” which he has endured and must continue to endure.

Death would steal upon him quietly, turning his warm cheeks could while the waves continued repeated rhythm as consciousness grew fainter. Some might mourn his death just as he will regret the departure of this beautiful day to which his melancholy is in contrast. He is not popular, but nevertheless they might mourn his death while disapproving of his life. The end of this day will not bring mixed feelings to him. Since it has been enjoyed, it will live on in his memory.

Other causes undoubtedly contributed to Shelley’s death-wish at Naples. His first wife, Harriet Westbrook, and Mary Shelley’s half sister had committed suicide, the courts had taken from him the custody of his two children by Harriet, friends had turned against him, his poetry was neglected by the public and condemned by the critics, and he was plagued by financial and personal problems.

Shelley experienced one of the lowest periods of his life while he was in Naples. His desire to free himself by death from his troubles does not necessarily reveal any moral or character weakness but an understandably profound discouragement at a time when everything seemed to be going wrong. Nature, no matter how beautiful, was of little help.

So, the central meaning of the poem seems to hinge on the relationship between the beauty and comfort of nature and the speaker’s dejected emotional state. The emotional state appears to be allayed by the nature surrounding him, while the causes for his dejection are related to society.

Stanzas Written in Dejection, Near Naples Summary in Telugu

Percy Bysshe Shelley అనబడే 18వ శతాబ్దపు ఇంగ్లీషు రచయిత. ‘Stanzas Written in Dejection Near Naples’ అనబడే ఈ పద్యము ఏ్రాశారు. ఆ పద్యములు సంగీతబద్ధంగా ఉంటాయి. To A Skylark, Adonais’ మొదలైన గీతములు అయన యొక్క కవితా వైదుష్యమును చూపును. ఈ పద్యము ఆయన తిరస్కార బుద్దితో వ్రాశారు.

ఆయన ఈ పద్యాన్ని ప్రకృతిని అందంగా వర్ణిస్తూ ప్రారంభించారు. తన భార్యతో కలిసి, నేపుల్స్కు వెళ్ళినష్పుడు ఈ పద్యాన్ని వ్రాశారు. దానిని పరిసరాల అందమైన చిత్రీకరణతో (్రాశారు. అది పగది సమయము. గాలులు, పక్షులు అలలు, నగరం యొక్క ధ్వని అన్నీ కూడా చాలా సున్నితంగా ఉన్నాయి. అక్కడ ఉన్న ఇసుక మీద కూర్చుండి, రంగులో ఉన్న సముద్రపు కలుపు యొక్కలను చూశాడు.

సముద్రపు హోరు, దాని అలల మెరుపులు చూసి, అయన నోటిమాట రాకుండా ఉండిపోయాడు.
అతడు వెనకటి విషయాలు గుర్తు చేసికొన్నాడు గానీ ఇప్పటి అతని పరిస్థితి అతణ్ణి తిరస్కారపు స్థితికి నడిపింద. ఆయన కష్టాలు ఎన్నో ఆయన భార్య చనిపోయింది. పిల్లలు ఆయన నుండి వేరుచేయబడ్డారు. రెండవ భార్య విడిచి వెళ్ళిపోయింది. అతనికి ఆశలేదు, ఆస్థి లేదు, ఘనత లేదు, గౌరవము గానీ అధికారము గానీ లేవు,పేమ లేదు, విశ్రాంతి కూడా లేదు – అతని స్నేహీతులకు అన్ని ఆనందాలు ఉన్నాయి.

అయన నిరాశలో నుండి, అలసిపోయిన చిన్న పిల్లవాడి లాగా ఏడ్చాడు. అతడు చావు కొరకు ఎదురు చూడవలసివచ్చింది. ఆయన చనిపోయినప్పుడు ఆయన స్నేహితులు అతని కొరకు విలపించారు. ఈ విలాపము, ఆయన ఉద్దేశ్యములో, సరిఘైన సమయములోనిది కాదు.

ఆయన మానసిక వ్యధలోనుండినప్పుడు ఎవ్వరూ పట్దించుకొనలేదు. సూర్యాస్తమయము సహజంగా వచ్చింది అలాగే ఆయన మరణం కూడా సహజమే. ఆయన ఆ విలాపమును అంగీకరించలేదు.
కవి, ఈ పద్యాన్ని తిరస్కారమైన స్థితిలోనుండి వ్రాశారు. ముందు లైనులలో ప్రకాశవంతమైన పగదిని గురించి, చివరి పంక్తులు సూర్యాస్తమయమును అనగా రోజు పూర్తయిన సమయమును అనగా కవి యొక్క చివరి రోజులకు వర్ణిస్తున్నవి.

OU Degree 2nd Sem English Study Material

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