Shakespeare Retold Julius Caeser Questions and Answers & Summary William by Shakespeare

OU Degree 1st Sem English – Shakespeare Retold Julius Caeser Questions and Answers & Summary

Question 1.
How does Brutus justify the assassination of Caesar?
In his speech to the Roman crowd after Caesar’s assassination, Brutus emphasizes first that the he was Caeser’s best friend, but that he had to kill him for the good of Rome. In short, he claims that his action demonstrated “not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more”.

It was out of a sense of duty to the Roman Republic, which Brutus argued was under threat due to Caesar’s ambition. As Caesar loved me, I weep for him; as he was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as a valiant, I honor him, but as he was ambitious, I slew him.

He concludes his speech by offering the citizens of Rome a stark choice, essentially arguing that had Caesar survived, he would have deprived them of their status as citizens of a free republic, and because none wanted to see that happen. Brutus says, “none have I offended.” The crowd agrees with Brutus, but of course is then swayed by Antony’s oration, which drew heavily on pathos.

Brutus and the conspirators Kill Julius Caesar because they believe he is bent on tyranny and is set to dissolve the senate. When Cassius speaks to Brutus to convince him that Caesar must be killed before he can be crowned emperor, Brutus compares Caesar to a serpent.

Thus the murder of Caesar is justified by Brutus as a way of defending the integrity of the state. If Caesar lived, according to Brutus, then all of Rome would have been subject to the will of Caesar. He goes to grea. lengths to paint Caesar as the ambitions figure and to depict himself as a humble servant of Rome.

Question 2.
Describe how Antony employs irony in his speech.
Mark Antony, who is a true friend of Caesar, promises Caesar’s soul that he’d seek revenge against the conspirators for his brutal murder. Shakespeare employes dramatic irony when Brutus takes Antony’s promise of not saying anything against the conspirators in front of the crowd for the audience know Antony’s true intentions already. Unfortunately for Brutus, Antony gets a chance to address the Plebeians alone. Antony’s speech is one of the finest and most remembered.

The speech functions to nullify the effect of Brutus’ convincing explanation of Caesar’s murder, to hide his own intentions of revenge, to bring a culmination to the conspirators scheme of veiling their brutal act, and to shift the mood of the mob.

Antony knows that the crowd is convinced that Caesar’s murder happened in the best interest of Rome. He carefully tries to take a neutral ground to win the trust of the crowd. He says that Caesar is remembered for evil things after his death for the people of Rome forgot his good deeds.

He makes the Plebeians believe that the act of murder was not noble and aroused from hatred by showing them the brutally stabbed body of Caesar. He strategically reads out Caesar’s will in the end that piques the mob to seek revenge against the conspirators. He had Caesar’s will bequeathing money and lands to the citizens. Antony had his strong emotions of love for his dead friend Caesar and hatred for the men who had killed him. Antony shows unexpected eloquence in his oratory.

Question 3.
What are the similarities in the two orations of Brutus and Mark Antony?
In William Shakespeare’s play, Juluis Caesar there is a major difference between two of the characters, Brutus and Mark Antony. Brutus was very honorable and Antony was very persuasive. When Brutus spoke at Caesar’s funeral, he appealed to the people’s logic and Antony spoke to the emotions of the people. Antony is very smart and uses his brain frequently during the play and Brutus is very naive about many of things. Brutus speech was very short and to the point and spoke to the logic of the people in the crowd.

Brutus spoke in a detached way about Caesar’s death while Antony spoke the to the emotions of the crowd by crying and talking about all the good things that Caesar did for Rome. Antony’s intelligence was very apparent throughout the play and Brutus appeared to be naive. Antony was manipulative in his emotional approach to persuade people to become outraged at Brutus. There is more of difference than similarities between the two characters which appears to be their ability and inability to be both honorable and persuasive.

Question 4.
What was the effect of Antony’s oration on the crowd?
Antony’s speech at Caeser’s funeral is a masterpiece of rhetoric. He uses it to rally the people of Rome to his side against Brutus and the other conspirators who killed caeser. When Antony addresses the crowd, he skillfully undermines Brutus’s speech without even appearing to do so.

He never condemns Brutus directly, in fact he keeps on calling Brutus ‘an honourable man’ while at the same time contradicting Brutus claims that Caesar was too ambitious and therefore had to be killed. He does this by citing instances of Caesar’s generosity and compassion for the people, and also the time when Caesar refused to take a crown that was offered to him.

When Caesar’s friend Antony comes to the pulpit to address the crowd, public opinion is very much in favour of the conspirators. Antony can not condemn the conspirators without harm to himself. He claims he has no intention of praising his dead friend; he praises the murders instead as ‘honourable men’. He says that if Caesar was ambitious as described by Brutus, then his murder was indeed justified.

He presents many arguments to prove that Caesar was not ambitious, while at the same time enumerating Caesar’s good qualities. He uses emotional appeals to stir the crowd. Not once does he say anything against the conspirators, but his clever speech hits its mark.

The crowd reasons that if Caesar was not ambitious as claimed by Brutus, then his murder was a grave injustice. The mood of the commoners changes sharply once again, and they cry out for the blood of the murderers. This was the effect of Antony’s speech on the crowd.

Annotate the following lines in about 250 words each.

Question 1.
It is not that I loved Caesar less than anyone else, but that I loved Rome more than everything else.
The Poem (prose form) and the Poet: The given words I are powerfully pursuasive. They are from the most popular poet of all ages William Shakespeare’s “Julius Caesar”. Act III Scene 2 contains these words. “Julius Caesar” is the touching tragedy from the Bard of Avon.

The Context: Caesar was a popular Roman general and statesman. Growing jealous of his rising popularity, Brutus and party killed Caesar cruelly. But they were worried that people might revolt against them. They wanted to explain to people the reason for their killing and defend themselves. Brutus used these words in that context.

The Meaning : Brutus appealed for patient listening. He requested the citizens to be calm. He pleaded for wise judgement. Then he went on to explain his stand. He declared, that he loved Caesar as any other Roman loved Caesar. But, he quickly added, he loved Rome the most. He implied that his love for Rome led him to kill Caesar to save Rome from him. His love for Rome was more than his love for Caesar.

The Significance : The words highlight the pursuasive power of Brutus. They also show us that logic and rhetoric play a pivoted role in moulding public opinion. Simple words here serve a profound purpose. They also prove that the pen is mightier than the sword.

Question 2.
Let Brutus become our ruler !
The Poem and the Poet: This cryptic but powerful imperative and exclamatory sentence is taken from “Shakespeare Retold : Julius Caesar”. The piece is the prose version of a short extract from Act III, Scene 2 of “Julius Caesar”. “Julius Caesar” is one of the greatest tragedies composed by William Shakespeare, the most mesmerizing creative genius this world has ever seen.

The Context: Caesar was a very popular Roman general. Brutus and his party assassinated Caesar brutally. They just couldn’t tolerate Caesar grow in fame and power. But they were afraid that people might revolt against them. So, Brutus said to the citizens they killed Caesar only to save Rome and Romans from his cruel rule.

The crowd was convinced. They believed that Brutus was their saviour. It is then, one of tin- citizens assembled at the funeral said these words. The Explanation : Brutus defended their cruel killing of Caesar. The mob was mesmerized. The credulous crowd accepted every word Brutus said as right. They wanted their saviour Brutus to be their ruler. That desire is expressed in these words of the third citizen at the funerals of Caesar. The words express the crowd’s collective will to see Brutus as their ruler.

The Significance: “Brevity is the soul of wit” is a famous saying from Shakespeare. And this great master practised what he preached. The given sentence is an excellent example of that ‘soul of wit’. In these five words, the speaker expressed what others need volumes to convey. The words are significant from another point of view also. They reflect the impact of Brutus’ words on the crowd. Thus the words serve multiple purposes.

Question 3.
I’m not here to contradict Brutus, but only to speak about what I do know.
The Poem and the Poet : We come across these wonderful words in “Shakespeare Retold : Julius Caesar.” The piece is the paraphrase of a small section from scene 2, Act III of “Julius Caesar”. This great historical tragedy flowed out from the mighty pen of William Shakespeare. The whole world regards Shakespeare as the poet of all ages.

The Context: Caesar, the popular Roman general, was brutally assassinated by Brutus and team. At the funeral procession, Brutus spread blatant lies about Caesar. With his speech skills, Brutus convinced tire crowd that he was their saviour.

The mob was carried away by the rhetoric. Then, it was the turn of Mark Antony to address the gathering. Antony was a loyal friend of Caesar. He knew well what all Brutus said was wrong. He was already warned not to say anything against Brutus. In this context Antony said these words.

The Explanation : Antony here said that he did not want to condemn Brutus. His purpose was not to say anything against Brutus. His intention was clear. He just wanted to tell them what he knew. He did not want to say anything else. He loved to present facts.

The Significance: The words sound simple. They came straight from the heart of the honest Antony. He knew well what Brutus said was falsehood. Yet, he could not say it openly. He could not, at the same time, keep quiet too. His will and wit showed him the way. He claimed that he would not oppose Brutus. Yet, he asserted that he would state what he knew! The words serve a great purpose.

Question 4.
If that’s true, certain people are going to pay dearly for what they have done.
The Poem and the Poet : These words to precise prediction are a part of “Shakespeare Retold : Julius Caesar”. The selection is from the tragic play “Julius Caesar”. It was penned by William Shakespeare. The great poet dramatist is respected all over the world as the greatest writer.

The Context: Caesar was assassinated. And his murderers projected Caesar as ambitious and tyrannical. Brutus presented that false picture at the funeral procession. Mark Antony, a loyal friend of Caesar, spoke later. He presented facts cleverly and correctly. The crowd saw through the schemes of Brutus and his associates. Then, the first citizen responded in the given words.

The Explanation: The crowd understood what Antony said was correct. The first citizen then said that the evil-doers must pay a heavy price for their sins. Antony explained to them the good deeds, of Caesar. Hence the citizens declared that killing Caesar was a serious crime. The criminals, therefore, should be punished severely.

The Significance: This comment from a citizen indicates the success of Antony in adverse conditions. It also proves that no one can fool everyone all the times. It indicated what would happen to the brutal and cruel Brutus and his friends. It shows that good will certainly – sooner or later – win over evil. The words are remarkable for the cautious approach of the citizens.



Approximants are consonant sounds that are produced by bringing one speech organ (such as the tongue or lips) close to another without actually touching it. This group of sounds includes /l/, /r/,/j/ and /w/. It is a consonant that sounds in some ways like a vowel. For example, lateral approximants like the sounds for ‘l’ in the English word ‘Like’, the sound for ‘r’ in the English word ‘right’ and semivowels like the sound for ‘y’ in ‘yes’ and the sound for ‘w’ in wet are all approximants.

Approximant In initial position In medial position In final position
/l/ lamp, lid flower, silly call, feel
/r/ rain, ribbon stream, carrot – –
/j/ yellow, union beauty, pupil – –
/w/ water, one always, squeeze – –

1. The letter 7’ is silent in certain words like talk, half, calm, should, would i.e., there is no /l/ sound in these words.
2. When the letter V is followed by a consonant, its /r/ sound is unheard, e.g. bark, curd, port, interview.
3. When the letter ‘r’ comes at the end of a word, its /r/ sound is not pronounced in British English; e.g Better, Car, Fur, Singer
4. In British English, the sound of the phoneme /r/ is heard only when the letter /r/ is followed by a vowel sound, e.g.: break, drive, hundred, rat.
5. When the letter ‘w’ is followed by the letter /r/, the /w/ sound is unheard, E.g: Write, Wrong, Wriggle


Write down the approximate consonant sound represented by the underlined letters in the given words.

1. twing /w/
2. badly /l/
3. greeting /r/
4. student /j/
5. crazy /r/
6. new /j/
7. healthy /l/
8. rupees /r/
9. young /j/
10. wine /w/

Do the following sounds contain any approximant consonant sounds? If yes, which one? If no, put a cross against the word.

1. queen — queen /w/
2. card — x (No approximate sound)
3. future — future /j/
4. apple — apple /l/
5. half — x
6. heart  — x
7. wrist — wrist /r/
8. balm — x
9. whom — x
10. yolk — yolk /j/
11. never — x
12. wallet — wallet /w/and /I/
13. traffic — taffic /r/
14. colonel — Colonel /I/
15. two — x
16. cow — x
17. palm — x
18. answer — x
19. chalk — x
20. sword — x



Adverbs are words used to modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. They add meaning to the ‘word they’ modify.

1. The old man walks slowly
adverb slowly modifies the verb walks

2. This place is very peaceful
adverb very modifies the adjective peaceful

3. The news came quite suddenly
adverb quite modifies the adverb suddenly

There are different types of adverbs.

Adverb type Tells us…. Example
Manner how something happens She came in quickly.
Frequency how often something happens He goes to the market daily
Time When something happens Students have a farewell party today
Place Where something happens He wants us to wait outside his room
Degree the intensity or degree of something The new shop is too far

1. Sita was running
Sita was running fast → Adverb to say how

2. I met Lilly
I met Lilly at coffee shop → Adverb to say where

3. Our office starts
Our office starts at nine sharp → Adverb to say when

4. Roohi goes to shopping
Roohi usually goes to shopping → Adverb to say how often.

5. Neha is coming to the restaurant
Neha is certainly coming to the → restaurant Adverb to say how certain we are.


Fill in the blanks with suitable adverbs, using the adjectives in brackets as clues. In the space provided after it, write down what kind of adverb it is.

1. Come quickly before it finishes [quick]
[Adverb of manner]

2. Although he is a good student, he did not do well in the exam, [good]
[Adverb of manner]

3. Telugu is my mother tongue. I speak it fluently [fluent]
[Adverb of manner]

4. He did not complete the course as easily as he thought he would, [easy]
[Adverb of degree]

5. I reached on time because I left home early [early]
[Adverb of time]

Correct the error in the use of adverbs in each of the following sentence. If there is no error in the sentence, put a tick mark in the space provided

1. My sister always worked hardly
My sister always worked hard.

2. He is driving too fastly.
He is driving too fast.

3. He is dressed casually No Error

4. The plane flew highly in the sky.
The plane flew high in the sky

5. The pan is really hot.
No error

Fill in each blank with the correct adverb from the choices given below.

Shakespeare Retold Julius Caeser Questions and Answers & Summary William by Shakespeare 1

1. Mrs Reddy had begun the class early. I had been late “Sometimes and was punished severely for it.
I decided to sneak into class. I tiptoed in quickly from the back door and slip into my seat quietly before she noticed.

2. I go to the park every evening. I often run into my neighbour, Tara. Herpet dog wags its tail happily when it sees me.



A palindrome is a word, phrase, number, or other sequence of symbols that reads the same backward as forward. It is read the same way from either direction.

Shakespeare Retold Julius Caeser Questions and Answers & Summary William by Shakespeare 2


Fill in each blank with a palindrome based on the give clue.

1. When both hands of a clock are on 12, and the sun is overhead noon.
2. A part of the body eye
3. A male member of the family dad
4. A female member of the family mom
5. The smallest palindromic number greater than a 11
6. The next palindromic number after the one above 22
7. The smallest palindromic number greater than 99 101
8. The greatest palindromic number less than 99 88


Derived Forms of Words

A Word may exist in several forms – noun, verb, adjective, adverb. For example, the noun carefulness has the adjective careful and the adverb carefully as its derived forms. It is important to note the spelling of these various forms.

For e.g.

  • grace (N), gracing (V), graceful (Adj), gracefully (Adv)
  • mistake (N), mistaking (V), mistaken (Adj), Mistakenly (Adv)
  • separator (N), separating (V), separate (Adj), separately (Adv)


Complete the following table with the derived forms of the words already in the table.

Noun Verb Adjective Adverb
attraction attract attractive attractively
reduction reduce reducible reducibly
worship worshipping worshipful worshipfully
securement secure securable securely
collection collect collectable collectively
activation activate active actively
glory glorify glorious gloriously
Power empower powerful powerfully


Inverted Comma (”) or (” “)
The inverted comma (also called a quotation mark) is a punctuation mark used in pairs to set off a speech, a quotation, a phrase or a word.
For example
Shakespear said : “All the world’s a stage.
‘What do you mean?’ Justin asked The ‘rambutan’ is a kind of fruit

Note : Inverted commas may be used singly (‘ ’) or doubly (“ ”).
Single inverted commas are preferred in British English
American English uses double inverted commas.

1. We use them in the direct speech
eg : She said to him, “What is your name?”
“I hope you will be here,” he said.

2. To quote someone word to word
eg : He told us that we ‘must attend’ the meeting.

3. To enclose titles of articles short poems, and short stones
eg : ‘A Psalm of Life’ by Longfellow.

4. To enclose definitions
eg : The abbreviation GMT stands for ‘Greenwich Mean Time’

5. To indicate irony, inaccuracy, or unusual use.
eg: Your ‘friend’ Danny stole your money.


I. Identify the sentence that has been punctuated correctly.

1. Aman told me that he was going to Paris next week.
Aman told me ‘that he was going to Paris next week’.
Aman told me, that he was going to Paris next week.
Aman told me that he was going to Paris next week.

2. Ali said I’m giving up smoking from tomorrow.
Ali said ‘I’m giving up smoking from tomorrow’.
Ali said, ‘I’m giving up smoking from tomorrow.’
Ali said, ‘I’m giving up smoking from tomorrow.’

3. ‘Yes’, said Laila, ‘I’ll be happy to cover your shift.’
‘Yes, said Laila’, ‘I’ll be happy to cover your shift.’
‘Yes’, said Laila, I’ll be happy to cover your shift.
‘Yes’, said Laila, ‘I’ll be happy to cover your shift.’

4. ‘Come.’ said Darshan, ‘let’s go.’
‘Come’, said Darshan, ‘let’s go.’
‘Come’, said Darshan, ‘let’s go.’
‘Come’, said Darshan, ‘let’s go.’

II. Punctuate the following sentences by using, wherever necessary, capitals and all the punctuation marks you have learnt so far.

Question 1.
mary is trying hard to complete the project her friend said.
“Mary is trying hard to complete the project,” her friend said.

Question 2.
no the man answered curtly i don’t care.
“No,” the man answered curtly, “I don’t care.’

Question 3.
Invictus is a short Victorian poem by the english poet william emest henley
“Invictus” is a short Victorian poem by the English poet William Ernest Henley.

Question 4.
my father told me that he won’t give me pocket money anymore.
My father told me that he won’t give me pocket money anymore.

Question 5.
yes of course she replied i’ll take care of it.
“Yes, of course,” she replied, “I’ll take care of it.”


Interview Skills

Preparing for an Interview : Preparing for an interview helps you face the panel of interviewers with confidence. Remember the following points when you are preparing for an interview.

  • Brush up on the subject or the area related to the interview and update yourself on recent developments.
  • Prepare answers to some general questions you think the interviewers will ask; e.g., Tell us a little about yourself; Why do you want to be with us?; What are your strengths and weaknesses?
  • Arrange the papers and certificates that you may be asked to produce neatly in a folder.
  • Wear something formal and comfortable for the occasion.
  • Plan to reach the place of the interview a little early as this will give you time to familiarise yourself with your surroundings and to relax.
  • Think positive, pleasant thoughts and try to regulate your breathing to remain calm.

Facing an Interview

1. Wait for your name to be announced, and knock or seek permission before you enter.

2. Greet the people in the room formally, but in a pleasant manner.

3. Do not sit down until you are asked to.

4. Look at the interviewers. Be conscious about making eye contact with the person speaking to you and of maintaining a proper and relaxed body posture and a steady tone of voice, which should not be either too loud or too soft.

5. Remember not to interrupt the. interviewer and allow him/her to finish speaking before you respond.

6. Listen carefully to the interviewers’ questions and comments, and speak clearly and at a moderate pace to avoid having anyone repeat themselves.

7. In case you do not hear a question you are asked, or if you do not understand it, you could politely ask for it to be repeated or explained. For example: I’m sorry, but could you repeat the question, please; or I’m afraid I’m not sure what you mean. Are you asking me if I… ?; or Could you clarify the question, please.

8. Avoid answering questions with just ‘Yes’ or ‘No’. Even in the case of yes-no questions, the interviewer will find it more satisfying if you add to your reply or explain it briefly. Thus, in reply to is your mother tongue Telugu?, you could say, No, it’s Urdu. But I can speak Telugu fluently. ‘

9. Do not feel embarrassed to say that you do not know the answer to a question. Use expressions such as I’m afraid I don’t know … and I’m sorry, but I’m not really certain.

10. Do not get into arguments or speak negatively or criticise former teachers, colleagues or employers.

11. Do not boast or display your knowledge, skills and experience, but if asked, state your achievements simply and honestly.

12. Wait for the interviewer to invite you to ask questions in case you have queries. If this does not happen, wait until you sense that the interviewers are done before asking them politely if they could clarify something for you. Examples of the questions you may want to ask the interviewer are Could you tell me whether the position involves travelling, please and Could I know when I can expect to hear from you, please.

13. Wait for the interviewer to tell you that the interview has ended before you get up
from your chair. Thank all the people in the room before walking out of the door and closing it softly behind you.


Interviewer : Good afternoon
James : Er, good afternoon
Interviewer : Please sit down. Did you find our offices all right?
James : Yes, with no difficulty. I’ve passed this building several times before.
Interviewer : Right. Well, I can see from your CV that you like meeting people and enjoy being sociable
James : Yes, I’m a very outgoing sort of person and I’m not afraid to take the initiatives although my friends say I tend to talk too much.
Interviewer : Well, that’s exactly the kind of person we need. Why do you think you will do good at this job? Though you won’t be meeting people in person but only over the phone.
James : I think I have a good telephone voice, and I am very confident on the phone. I’ve also some experience in sales, as you can see from my CV. I think I would find this work interesting, and it will give me some good work experience.
Interviewer : Okay. As you know we need someone for at least three hours, three evenings a week. Will you be able to cope with this and your school work as well.
James : I’m confident that I can do that.
Interviewer : Right, then, Shall we give you a trial period of say… two weeks? If you’d like to come with me I’ll introduce you to my floor manager who will show you the ropes.
James : Yes, and thank you very much.

Reading Passage

The Handicrafts of Telangana

The arts and crafts of Telangana have always occupied a place of distinction in India. Communities across the state of Telangana who have embraced handicrafts industry as a means of earning a livelihood are,

1. Banjara needle crafts : These are traditional handmade fabrics made by the gypsy tribes of Telangana famous for their colourful, rich embroidery and mirror work.

2. Bidriwave : It is a metal handicraft which makes use of zinc and copper alloys decorated with thin sheets of silver. Flowers, vines and geometric patterns are found, which are typically showpiece items like hookahs, vases, jewellery boxes, paper weights, earrings and trays. Bidriware is regarded as the pride of the state, important handicrafts of India and symbolises wealth.

3. Bronze Castings : Telangana artists are known for their amazing bronze castings. They learn it by studying the shilpa shastram.

4. Dokra Metal Crafts : It is also known as bell metal crafts, where a number of artists from Ushegaon and Chittalbori have settled. It is speciality of the Adilabad. district of Telangana. They use a technique called, ‘lost-wax castings’, sculptors are able to create figures of gods, animals (like horses, elephants and peacocks), folk motifs etc.

5. Lacquer ware : It can be traced to the Etikoppaka town of Telangana, where objects are decoratively covered with lacquer and remarkable designs are created. Lac bangles are popular form of Lacquerware.

6. Nirmal Artwork : This art is originated from the period of the kakatiya dynasty and follows Indian and Mughal schools of art. Artisans from the Nirmal town of the Adilabad district are famous for their dazzling oil paintings which depict scenes from Indian mythology. This also include Lacquered furniture, wall hangings decorative boxes, etc.


Formal Letters

In English there are a number of coventions that should be used when writing a formal or business letter. Care should be taken while writing official letters because they leave a lasting impression with the person or organization you write to.

Few guidelines for Writing Formal Letters are:

  • They must be clear and concise, stating the reason for writing the letter.
  • The writing style should be formal with simple language.
  • Must be written in the right format.

Elements of Official Letters

  • Sender’s address should be written in the top left-hand comer of the letter.
  • Address of the person you are writing to should be written on the left, below the sender’s address
  • Date
  • The salutation of greeting e.g: Dear Sir, Respected Sir
  • The subject line
  • The body of the letter
  • The complimentary close e.g: Yours Faithfully or Yours Sincerely
  • Your signature, the sender’s signature

Leave Application Letter :

The format of a leave application letter should be in formal. When applying for leave from college, be sure to include details such as your roll number, department, and other personal details related to the college. Some institutes require you to submit a medical certificate if the leave is for more than three days due to illness.

Sample 1.

Michelle Johnson
III BTech (IT)
ID No : IT270934
8 March 2016
The Principal
Sarabah College of Technology
Chennai 635201
Dear Madam,
Sub: Request for two weeks’ leave
I am Michelle Johnson, studying in Ill-year Information Technology. My student ID number is IT270934. I am writing to inform you that I am going to undergo a small surgery on 12 March 2016 to remove kidney stones. Doctors have advised me to take complete bed rest for one week after the surgery.
I request you to kindly grant me leave for two weeks from 10 March 2016. If I am forced to extend my leave, I shall inform you well in advance.
Thank you.
Yours faithfully,
Michelle Johnson
Parent’s signature mariam
Enclosure: Medical certificate dated 6 March 2016

Sample 2.

Sheena Joyce
III (Computers)
ID No. 6897391
18. Nov. 2016
The Principal
Chaitanya Women’s College,
Sub : Requisition for three days leave
Respected Madam,
I would like to bring to your kind attention that my name is K. Sheena Joyce and I am pursuing B.Com final year in your college. My roll no. is 16541692. I am really very sorry to inform you that after a prolonged illness, my paternal uncle died. I would be needed to be present at the funeral and is required to do rituals for the peace of his soul. Considering my situation, I request you to grant me leave for three days starting from 19 Nov 2016 to 21 Nov. 2016.1 hope you understand my condition.
Thanking you,
Yours Obediently
Sheena Joyce


Write a letter to the principal of your college requesting him/her to grant you permission to leave early every day for a month, so that you can attend an evening course that you have joined.
Pranay Paul,
St. Pauls Degree College,
Himayathnagar 20 Nov. 2015
The Principal,
St Paul’s Degree College,
Sub : Request to leave early for classes.
Respected Sir,
I Pramay Paul student of your college pursuing BBA II year, bearing roll No. 9641. I have joined a crash course to improve my skills recently. My classes we during evening session for two hours every day, for a month. In this regard, I would like to leave one hour early from college to reach to my institute.
So, Kindly request you to permit me to leave one hour daily for a month i.e., from Dec. 1, 2016 to Dec. 31, 2016.
Thanking you,
Yours Obediently

Banking Correspondence:

Banks need to exchange various kinds letters with their different stakeholders. As all of us use banking facilities, it is a good idea to practise writing such type of letters. The following letter is an application for an account statement.

Neha Kumari
3-6-342 Himayatnagar
Hyderabad 500029
Phone: 09398817523
30 October 2016
The Branch Manager
HBL Bank Pvt Ltd
65A Bank Street,
Koti Hyderabad 500095
Dear Sir,
Subject: Request for account statement
I hold an account in the Koti branch of HBL Bank since 2012. My account details are as follows:
A/c type: Savings bank A/c number: HBL0133956480 A/c name: Neha Kumari I am a student and am applying for an internship abroad. The visa application requires a bank statement for the last three months. May I request you to please issue an account statement for the period 01 August 2016 to 31 October 2016. I would greatly appreciate it if you could please send the statement to me as soon as possible, as I need to submit my documents to the concerned embassy in a week’s time.
Thank you very much.
Yours faithfully,
Neha Kumari


Imagine you are. the proprietor of Garuda Traders, Hyderabad. You would like to open a current account in a bank. Write a letter to the Branch Manager of ABC Bank making this request.
The Proprietor,
Garuda Traders,
10 April 2009 To
The Branch Manager,
ABC Bank,
Hyderabad, Telangana.
Sub : Opening of a current account Dear Sir,
We want to open a current account with your bank. We are enclosing herewih a certified copy of the company’s resolution concerning opening of a current account with you and appointing your bank. The ABC Bank at Hyderabad – as our banker. Please find enclosed herewith the following documents as required by you.

  • Account opening form duly completed.
  • Specimen signatures of the co-ordinators.
  • Copies of the company’s certificate of incorporation and certificate to commence trading.
  • Certified copy of resolution sanction of the carrent account as above.

I, The proprietor of Garuda Traders, authorized to sign on behalf of the company all the cheques and other documents. Please open the account and issue a cheque book containing hundred leaves.
With thanks
Yours Faithfully Raj kumar
The Proprietor.

Soft Skills

Etiquette and Grooming
Etiquette is the customary code of polite behaviour in society or among members of a particular profession or group.

  • Be punctual.
  • Greet colleagues with a smile and a handshake. Remember to be friendly.
  • Keep your workspace neat and tidy.
  • Do not invade your colleagues’ office space without permission.
  • Do not speak loudly or disturb others when answering phone calls.
  • Be honest and fair when trying to resolve issues.
  • Listen to others and try to help them with tKeir problems.
  • Do not try to avoid responsibilities or shirk duties.
  • Respect other people’s feelings.
  • Do not damage office property.

Grooming is the art of cleaning, grooming, and maintaining parts of the body. The things that you do to make your appearance clean and neat. It is care for one’s personal appearance, hygiene, and clothing.

  • Pay special attention to personal hygiene and cleanliness.
  • Dress in clothes that fit you well and reflect your age and personality. In a working environment, you must take care to dress professionally.
  • Dress neatly, in clothes that are clean and ironed.
  • If you wish to use perfume or aftershave, use one sparingly so that you do not overwhelm those around you.

Value Orientation

Necessity is the Mother of Invention

The meaning of the proverb ‘Necessity is the mother of invention’ is that when we stand in dire need of a thing. We can never rest satisfied until we get it. We strain every nerve to have it, as if some inward force were compelling us to act. Most of the great and good things of the world are the products of divine discontent in the mind of man.

When a man feels the pinch of hunger, it cannot be said that his want is trifling it is then a pressing want, for unless it is satisfied, he will die of starvation.  Human beings make their every effort to get that is essential for life. Even small necessities of life push us to work hard. The major inventions and discoveries are all the result necessities of human life and the desire of human to make the world a better place.

The English proverb ‘necessity is the mother of invention’ means that when you have to complete a task, and you have absolutely no choice but to complete the task, then you will think in radical, new, out-of-the-box ways to attempt to solve your problem. Because of necessity, you are forced into finding or creating solutions.

It is particularly applicable when working on projects that may seem impossible to complete. Under such circumstances, necessity can motivate you into thinking of ways in which you can increase efficiency. Put simply, if you must do something, then you will think of a way to do it.

Shakespeare Retold Julius Caeser Summary in English

William Shakespeare (1564-1616) is considered the greatest dramatist and poet of the English language. In Shakespeare’s hands, English drama achieved a matchless brilliance that fast shone forth in his early history plays, such as those based on the reigns of Henry VI, Richard II and Richard III; maturing into the romantic comedy of As You Like It and A Midsummer’s Night Dream: and finally reaching its zenith in the great tragedies, Hamlet; King Lear, and Macbeth, and in romances such as The Tempest. Shakespeare is also remembered for his many sonnets, the beauty and lyricism of which are admired even today.

Julius Caesar is one of Shakespeare’s great tragic plays. It opens with great celebration in the streets of Rome. The Roman general and statesman Julius Caesar has returned from a battle after defeating his political rivals. Rome is a republic, governed by elected noblemen. Some of them fear that Caesar (who is popular among the common citizens and has the support of the army) could seize power and declare himself a king. Many Roman politicians-including Cassias and Brutus-watch Caesar’s rise to political power with suspicion. While Cassias is outright jealous, Brutus has the larger interests of Rome’s people at heart.

Cassius, Casca and other politicians persuade Brutus that Caesar must be killed in order to save Rome. The thought troubles Brutus because Caesar has been a friend to him, but he agrees to join the conspiracy because he thinks it is best for the country. During a Senate meeting at the Capitol, Rome’s legislative assembly, the conspirators brutally stab Caesar to death. The people of Rome are confused and agitated by the murder of a popular leader, and demand answers.

The text you have just read is a prose paraphrase of an extract from Act Ill, Scene 2 of Shakespeare’s play. (The original extract may be found in Appendix I, after this lesson.) Here, Brutus calms the restless crowd of commoners. He explains to the Roman citizens his fears concerning Caesar’s ambition, and why it was necessary to kill him. After listening to his speech, the crowd is convinced that Brutus and the conspirators did the right thing.

They praise him for assassinating Caesar and delivering Rome from the evils of a dictatorship. Caesar’s friend Mark Antony then addresses the crowd, as it is a tradition to speak at the funeral of a leader. Antony has been warned by the conspirators not to say anything against them. Antony does not say anything directly against the conspirators; instead, he reminds the crowd of Caesar’s many services to Rome. His praise of Caesar sways the crowd, who now turn against the conspirators.

Shakespeare Retold Julius Caeser Summary in Telugu

అన్ని కాలాలకు చెంది అత్యుత్తమ కవిగా పేరు గాంచిన విలియమ్ షేక్స్పియర్కు 26 ఏప్రియల్ 1564న ఇంగ్లండ్లో బాప్టిజమ్ ఒసంగబడెను. అతి గొప్ప రచయితగా స్తుతించబడిన ఆయన 38 నాటకాలు, ఇంకెన్నో ఇతర రకాల రచనలు సృష్టించారు. “బార్డ్ ఆఫ్ ఎవాస్’గా వినుతికెక్కిన షేక్స్పియర్ 1616 ఏప్రియల్ 23న కన్నుమూసెను. బాగా పేరుగాంచిన ఆయన నాటకాలలో ప్రముఖ స్థానం పొందినది “జూలియస్ సీజర్”. అతని అతి గొప్ప విషాదాంత నాటకాలలో ఇది ఒకది.

ఈ చారిత్రక, కదిలించే విషాదాంతంలోని 3వ అంకం రెండవ దృశ్యం నుండి సేకరించిన ఒక చిన్న భాగపు గద్యరూపం ప్రస్తుత పాఠ్యాంశం. ప్రఖ్యాత జాతీయవాది, గౌప్ప సైనికాధికారి అయిన రోమ్ నాయకుడు సీజర్ను బ్రూటస్ మరియు ఇంకొందరు కలిసి కుట్రపూర్వకంగా హత్యచేస్తారు. ఇప్పుడు అదే బ్రూటస్, తన అద్భుత వాక్పటిమతో రోష్ వాసులను ప్రశాంతంగా వినవలసిందిగా అభ్యర్థిస్తాడు. సీజర్ తనకు మంచి మిత్రుడని నొక్కివక్కాణిస్తాడ.

అయినప్పదికి తను (పేమించిన, తనను కపేమించే సీజర్ను చంపడానికి కారణం రోమ్ అంటే తనకు సీజర్ మీద కన్నా ఎక్కువ (పేమ ఉంది కాబట్టీ అంటారు. సీజర్ది అత్యాశ అని ధృవీకరిస్తాడు. ఆయన ఆశలు నెరవేరనిచ్చినట్లేతే, రోమ్ బానిసల దేశంగా మారిపోయేది అంటారు. ఱ్రూటస్ యొక్క వాగ్ధాదిలో సాధారణ ప్రజలు కొట్టుకుపోతారు.

బ్రూటస్ రోమ్ను, రోమనులను సీజర్ నియంతృత్వం నుండి కాపాడుటకే ఆయనను చంపాడు అని జనం నమ్ముతారు. ఆ మైకంలో బ్రూటసే తమ రాజు అని అరుస్తారు. అప్పుడు సీజర్కు విధేయుడైన స్నేహితుడు ఆంటోనికి మాట్లాడే అవకాశం వస్తుంది. బ్రూటస్ బృందం యొక్క క్రూర కుట్రలకు సీజర్ బలి అయ్యాడని ఆంటోనికి తెలాసు. అఁ్బనప్పదికి అ విషయాన్ని ఆంటోని బహిరంగంగా చెప్పలేని స్థితి. అలా నిశ్శబ్దంగా కూడా ఉండలేడు. ‘కుక్కకాటు’కు చెప్పదెబ్బ’ను ప్రయోగించాడు.

బ్రూటస్ ఉపయోగించిన వాక్పటిమనే సామాన్యలను ఒప్పించుటకు దాడుకున్నాడు. సీజర్ యొక్క నైపుణ్యాలను, డేశభక్తి లక్షనాలను ఏకరువు పెట్టాడు. అదే సమయంలో ణ్రూటస్ అతి గౌప్ప నిజాయితీ పరుడని, కాదట్టీ అతను సీజర్ గురించి చెప్పిందంతా నిజమేన. మళ్ళీ నుళ్ళీ విన్నవించాడు. ఉర్దేశించిన సమాచారం విజయవంతంగా అందించబడింది. ఫ్రజలకు ట్రూటస్ యొక్క ఐృందం యొక్క కుట్ర అర్ధం అయింది. నాటకలోని తగుపాతి భాగాలలో కుట్రదారులందరు చంపబడుతారు, అంటోని మరియు అతని నిజాయుతీ సలబడటం చూస్త్రము. ఈ దిధంగా సీజర్ యొక్క దేశభక్ల కూడా నిరూపించబడుతుంది.

OU Degree 2nd Sem English Study Material

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